OSH system at National Level - Croatia
Réka Zayzon, Klaus Kuhl, Kooperationsstelle Hamburg IFE GmbH, Germany
- 1 Introduction
- 2 Occupational safety and health legislative framework
- 3 National strategy and programmes
- 4 Social dialogue
- 5 OSH infrastructure
- 5.1 OSH infrastructure scheme
- 5.2 National competent bodies
- 5.3 Education, training and awareness raising
- 5.4 Awareness raising networks
- 5.5 Specialized technical, medical and scientific institutions
- 6 Institutions and organisations
- 7 References
- 8 Links for further reading
The Republic of Croatia is a unitary democratic parliamentary republic, situated on the Adriatic Sea, with an area of 56.6 sq. km and a population of 4.28 million. A former federal state of Yugoslavia, the country was involved in the four year Croatian War of Independence from 1991-1995. After an 8 year harmonization process, Croatia joined the EU on 1 July 2013. It is a member of the UN, The Council of Europe, NATO, the WTO, and a founding member of the Union of the Mediterranean.
Occupational safety and health legislative framework
The relevant EU laws are the main legal basis for the national OSH legislation. The 1996 Act on safety and health protection at the workplace is the “umbrella law” for OSH (Zakon o zaštiti na radu, published in the Official Journal Narodne Novine, number: 59/96, referred to as OSH Act) and subsequent revisions (94/96, 114/03, 86/08, 75/09, and 143/12). It implements the European OSH framework directive EEC 89/391 and is in line with the ILO Convention concerning Occupational Safety and Health Convention and the Working Environment (ILO No. 155), the Occupational Health Services Convention (No. 161).
By 08 Oct. 1991, the following ILO Conventions on OSH had been ratified by Croatia:
- C013 - White Lead (Painting) Convention, 1921 (No. 13)
- C045 - Underground Work (Women) Convention, 1935 (No. 45)
- C119 - Guarding of Machinery Convention, 1963 (No. 119)
- C136 - Benzene Convention, 1971 (No. 136)
- C139 - Occupational Cancer Convention, 1974 (No. 139)
- C148 - Working Environment (Air Pollution, Noise and Vibration) Convention, 1977 (No. 148)
- C155 - Occupational Safety and Health Convention, 1981 (No. 155)
- C161 - Occupational Health Services Convention, 1985 (No. 161)
- C162 - Asbestos Convention, 1986 (No. 162).
Health and safety protection at work is specified in the OSH Act (Section 7) as an organised public interest activity, based on a system of rules laid down in the Act, covering:
- Material elements of work (including workplace design, protective equipment, traffic roads)
- Maintenance and testing of working tools and equipment
- Adapting work to the gender, age, and psychical and mental capacities of the workers
- OSH Training and information for workers
- Co-operation between employers and workers
- Protection of workers, their representatives and OSH specialists from being discriminated against or disciplined due to their taking action on OSH.
According to assessments from 2007, about 90% of the working population were covered by the provisions in the OSH Act.
The OSH Act obliges the employer to take measures to protect the health and safety of workers, including: training and information, (Part I, chapters 3 and 4), inspecting the Working Environment and High Risk machinery (part I, chapter 9), setting up a Safety and Health Committee (upon certain conditions) (part I, chapter 14), and appointing employee safety representatives (part I, chapter 15). The OSH Act also has provisions for vulnerable groups (young workers, women, and those with a reduced working capacity, (part I, chapter 6), and for certain types of risks (as dangerous substances). The Act sets out workers´ rights and obligations, and regulates the provision of occupational health services and the duties of the providers of such services, especially of the Croatian Institute for Occupational Health Protection and Safety at Work (Part IV, chapter 3). Part VI of the OSH Act stipulates surveillance in the domain of OSH.
There are specific legal acts to regulate OSH issues such as protection against particular hazards (e.g. noise, explosive substances, nuclear safety, chemical hazards, radiation etc.), occupational health insurance (HRV-2006-L-74291), and the procedures for recognising occupational accidents and diseases (HRV-2007-R-78476). A compendium of Croatian OSH related legislation can be found in the NATLEX database of ILO. The following are the most important laws:
Occupational safety and health regulations of 29 July 2003 to amend and supplement the regulations on the inspection of work environment, machines and structures with a high level of danger (Text No. 1856, 2003-07-29 HRV-2003-R-65185)
Act of 9 December 2005 on chemicals (Text No. 2899), 2005-12-21, No. 150. Provides for security measures during production and transport of dangerous chemicals. Deals with protection health and environment.
Regulations of 30 March 2005 on conditions for granting authorizations to legal persons to exercise specialized tasks related to protection from ionising radiation (Text No. 858).
Regulations of 20 December 2004 on health conditions for work with sources of ionising radiation and measures, content, means and terms of conservation of data on medical examinations of persons working with sources of ionising radiation (Text No. 9).
Act of 3 December 2004 on explosive substances (Text No. 3089).
Act of 3 December 2004 on waste (Text No. 3083).
Regulations of 7 October 2004 on highest authorized levels of noise in the working and living environment (Text No. 2548).
Regulations of 9 September 2002 on conditions for the training of workers for safe work (Text No. 1842). It provides for conditions to be fulfilled by legal persons to ensure the training of workers for safe work, the procedure to obtain authorization and the loss of authorization to ensure such training.
Act of 9 September 2002 to amend and supplement the Act on danger evaluation (Text No. 1839). The act provides, inter alia, for the obligation of the employer to evaluate danger in various types of activities where there is a risk of occupational accident or disease (amends the Act of 1998).
According to the Law on Compulsory Health Insurance (NN80/13) adopted in 2013 , all employees are covered by compulsory insurance against occupational diseases and accidents at work, including the army and police, students and trainees, as well as self-employed. Insurance and compensation for occupational diseases and accidents have been regulated by the following legal acts, amended by the new Law on Compulsory Health Insurance:
- The Act of 13 July 2006 on health insurance in relation to health protection at work provides for specific health protection for workers, occupational accidents and diseases, insured persons, rights in the event of occupational accident or disease, procedure for assessing occupational accident or disease, and compensation of damages.
- The Regulations of 23 October 2007 on standards and rights for health protection, deriving from basic health insurance.
- General conditions from 5 February 2009 of the contract on health care implementation from basic health insurance for occupational health.
National strategy and programmes
The tripartite National Council for Safety and Health at Work began the Draft National OSH Program in 2004. Partners who have cooperated in drafting the programme are: Representatives of the state Administration (Ministry of Economy, Labour and Entrepreneurship, Ministry of Health and Social Care, and the State Labour Inspectorate), the Croatian Institute for Health Protection and Safety at Work, the Croatian Institute of Public Health, the Croatian Employment Institute, the Croatian Institute for Pension Insurance, the Croatian Chamber of Commerce and the Croatian Chamber of Trades. A National Safety and Health Profile in the Republic of Croatia study, commissioned by the ILO, found that the development of this programme was regarded as the greatest social dialogue achievement in Croatia. In December 2008, the Croatian Government adopted a national OSH programme for 2009-2013. The main objectives are:
- Reducing the number of injuries
- Reducing the number of occupational diseases and diseases related to work
- Reducing the number of occupational accidents
- Improving the health status of workers
- Reducing economic losses due to injuries, occupational diseases, and work-related illnesses (sick leave, early retirement and disability)
The state bodies, trade unions and employers´ associations collaborate closely to achieve these objectives. Their activities include:
- Risk prevention and reduction (threat to life and health of workers)
- Prevention of risks arising from new technologies
- Increasing the level of security in high-risk sectors (construction, forestry, health sector, agriculture, manufacturing)
- Health and safety in small businesses
- Protection of vulnerable groups of workers (women, young and ageing workers, disabled workers, and temporary workers).
By implementing the National Programme, the following overarching and specific goals shall be achieved:
- The basic strategic goal of “Healthy Workplaces”
- The more specific goal of improving the overall health and safety in workplaces
- Encouraging employers and workers to implement legislation and practical measures to achieve a safe and healthy workplace.
In socio-economic fields such as economic policy, social policy and OSH, the employers’ association and four union confederations are the main players in the Croatian system of social dialogue at national, sectoral and company levels:
- SSSH (Union of Autonomous Trade Unions of Croatia, Savez samostalnih sindikata Hrvatske) 123,465 members in 23 unions (mainly private sector),
- NHS (Independent Croatian Trade Unions, Nezavisni hrvatski sindikati) 116,837 members in 59 affiliated unions (covers all sectors),
- MHS (Association of Croatian Unions, Matica hrvatskih sindikata) also known as Matica, with 57,990 members in 10 unions (mainly public sector)
- HUS (Croatian Trade Union Association, Hrvatska udruga sindikata), with 54,009 members in 57 unions (larger membership from the industry and the private sector)
- HUP (Croatian Employers’ Association, Hrvatska udruga poslodavaca) comprising 25 affiliates. Smaller associations had demanded less stringent criteria, and subsequently the requirements for the representativeness of the employers’ side were lowered, but still only HUP is able to meet the criteria.
Social dialogue at national level
The Croatian Economic and Social Council was established in 1994 as a central body for tripartite dialogue between the government, employers and trade unions. The aim was to provide opinions, suggestions and evaluations on various issues of common interest. There are regular consultations and a significant policy impact, as Eurofound notes. The government’s Office for Social Partnership was formed as a professional and logistic support to the Council. In 2012, however, this office was abolished and transmuted into the Autonomous Service for Social Partnership at the Ministry of Labour and Pension System, without consultations with social partners. This, according to the Annual Review 2010 on Labour Relations and Social Dialogue in South East Europe: Croatia’ Friedrich Ebert Foundation, is seen as evidence that the Government considers social dialogue to be ‘owned’ by the ministry.
The Council’s role is set out in the 2011 Labour Law, including monitoring the effects of economic and social policy and making proposals to the government, employers and unions for a coordinated price and salary policy, as well as commenting on draft legislation in the area of social and labour policy. It also has a role in identifying mediators for dispute resolution.
There are five sub-committees, covering wage policy, taxes and living standards, social policy, education, the labour market, collective bargaining and employment rights, and sustainable development. There are also local economic and social councils at county level. The work of the Economic and Social Council, at both national and local level is supported by a department for social partnership within the Ministry of Labour and Pensions.
Representatives of the social partners are actively involved in the work of governing councils of institutions such as the Croatian Pension Insurance Fund, Croatian Health Insurance Fund, Croatian Employment Service, Croatian Institute for Health Insurance of Health Protection at Work, and Croatian Privatisation Fund.
However, as the above-mentioned annual review notes, the social partners criticised the government for increasing its own influence in the bodies.
As well as the tripartite economic and social council, there are also bipartite social councils between the employers and unions for three areas: railways, tourism, and construction.
- To critically evaluate the OSH system and policy and inform the government about its findings and conclusions
- To follow closely all OSH laws and regulations and, whenever necessary, suggest mutual harmonization and harmonization with international regulations
- To submit proposals relevant for OSH policy and suggest measures to be implemented, in cooperation with employers and workers.
According to the 2003 amendment, the Council consists of a president and ten members, representatives of the state (2), of the employers (2), of the employed (2) and outstanding specialists in OSH (5). The president and members of this National Council are appointed for a 4 year term and may be re-appointed. In line with the above decision, the members of this National Council are: one representative of the Croatian Trade Unions, one representative of the Union of Independent Trade Unions of Croatia, and two representatives of the Croatian Employers’ Union. The drafting of the national OSH programme is regarded as the greatest achievement in this policy field.
Social dialogue at sectoral level
Under the guidance of the Economic and Social Council, three national sectoral councils have also been set up, and councils have been established at regional level.
Bipartite social councils, i.e. between the employers and unions are established in three sectors, namely railways, tourism and construction.
Social dialogue at enterprise level
Social dialogue at enterprise level can be in the form of negotiations for labour agreements, although in practice they hardly touch OSH issues. They can also be directly between the employer and the works council, the trade union representative and/or the OSH representative. The lack of competence among representatives is considered to be the biggest problem. The unions have seemingly reacted, increasing their efforts to raise awareness and offering courses. These efforts will hopefully improve worker participation and, in turn, the OSH situation. For more information see: Worker participation - Croatia.
OSH infrastructure scheme
Figure 1: The OSH infrastructure in Croatia
Source: Compilation by the authors
National competent bodies
In line with the OSH Act, the Government of Croatia is bound to monitor the latest developments in OSH, and work on and evaluate OSH policy, in consultation with the social partners. The main administrative body for OSH in Croatia is the Ministry of the Labour and Pension System. Other authorities with a key role include
- the Croatian Institute for Health Protection and Safety at Work
- the Croatian Institute for Health Insurance
- the State Labour Inspectorate.
Ministry of Labour and Pension System
The mandate of the Ministry of Labour and Pension System includes drafting legislation, monitoring OSH, making suggestions for campaigns to raise awareness, and organizing activities to promote OSH.
State Labour Inspectorate
The State Labour Inspectorate is a government organization. It is responsible for enforcing OSH legislation and performing inspections. There are 42 branches in five headquarters, corresponding to the administrative centres of Osijek, Rijeka, Split, Varazdin, and Zagreb. Each has an OSH Department and a Labour Department. OSH inspectors are in charge of first degree inspections in trade and crafts, mining, the energy sector, vessels under pressure, catering and tourism. Inspectors working in OSH Departments are tasked with the second degree procedures.
Inspectors must hold a university degree or an equivalent diploma in technical sciences, have at least two years’ professional experience, and pass an entrance exam. The tasks of a labour inspector may be entrusted to a person who has not taken the professional exam, but they are bound to take it not later than one year after the appointment.
Labour inspectors are authorized to:
- take decisions on eliminating deficiencies
- impose bans on performing activities that represent a direct threat to life and health
- seal machines, halls and rooms posing such a risk
- prohibit the use of such machines, halls and rooms
- impose fines
- start legal proceedings against those who violate the rules and regulations.
National Council for Safety and Health at Work
The National Council for Safety and Health at Work is a tripartite body, set up by the government in line with the OSH Act. It has been tasked to
- evaluate the OSH system and policy and inform the Government about its findings and conclusions
- contribute to the preparation of OSH laws and regulations, and advise the Government on the harmonization with international regulations
- make proposals for OSH policy and measures to be implemented 
Internal OSH services
In Croatia, there are no organised OSH services provided by internal staff.
External OSH services
The Croatian OSH Act stipulates that the employer shall provide his workers with occupational health services. For this purpose, the employer may designate a health institution or occupational health specialist with a private practice to provide occupational health services.
Occupational health specialists (physicians) who have a contract with the Croatian Institute for Health Insurance work closely with psychologists who have special authorisation to work in the field of occupational health, as well as with health and safety experts.
The duties of occupational health services include:
- occupational risk assessment
- monitoring of worker’s health and working conditions
- advising the employer on work planning and working organisation
- involvement in the planning of programmes aimed at promoting OSH
External service for technical control
In Croatia, external services for technical control are performed by institutions that are licensed and commissioned by the Ministry of Labour and Pension System to measure chemical and physical hazards in the workplace. These are generally private companies that employ engineers from different fields (with expertise in occupational risk management) who are trained to perform and interpret occupational exposure measurements.
Compensation and insurance bodies
Croatian Institute for Health Insurance / Croatian Health Insurance Fund The Croatian Institute for Health Insurance (Hrvatski zavod za zdravstveno osiguranje) is the administrative body for general health insurance, including industrial accident insurance under the ministerial responsibility of the Ministry of Health. From 2006-2010, the Croatian Institute for Occupational Health Insurance was responsible for the allocation of funds for prevention activities, diagnosis and treatment for occupational diseases and accidents, and sick leave compensation. These tasks have been performed by the Croatian Institute for Health Insurance since 2011.
Other OSH bodies
Croatian Institute for Health Protection and Safety at Work (CIOH) The Croatian Institute for Health Protection and Safety at Work (Hrvatski zavod za zaštitu zdravlja i sigurnost na radu) is a public institute under the ministerial responsibility of the Ministry of Health, responsible for implementing relevant legislation. Its main objective is to improve the quality of occupational health for all Croatian employees. To this end, , CIOH is involved in defining measures for health protection, developing standards and working methods, as well as providing advice, supervision and training on occupational health protection. CIOH is the body responsible for maintaining registers and databases, [Reporting and monitoring occupational accidents and diseases in Europe | and collecting and analysing data on working conditions and occupational accidents and diseases].
Of the eight very active independent expert OSH organizations, the most important are:
- Croatian Association of Occupational Medicine (CAOM): All specialists in occupational medicine are members of the Croatian Association of Occupational Medicine (CAOM), with its headquarters in Zagreb and branches in Rijeka, Split and Osijek. Membership in CAOM is voluntary. CAOM organises specialised training courses for its members and addresses current problems in occupational health. The Society is very active in all regional branches. CAOM organises monthly team meetings and workshops, as well as the Congress of OSH every three years.
- Croatian Medical Association - Croatian Society on Occupational Health (secretary: firstname.lastname@example.org )
- Croatian Engineers Association - Association for the Advancement of Human Safety in the Working and Living Environment (email@example.com)
- Croatian Society of Safety Engineers (firstname.lastname@example.org)
These associations are organize workshops, lectures, symposia, congresses, and meetings on different OSH issues.
Education, training and awareness raising
Legally required training for OSH specialists
Training courses in occupational medicine are part of the curriculum for students of medical sciences. They are taught in the sixth year of university studies (basic medical studies). The Andrija Štampar School–International Centre for Public Health Studies, which is a department of the Medical School in Zagreb, is the only institution providing the postgraduate course which is obligatory for specialists in occupational medicine. Upon completion of the residency in Occupational and Sports Medicine (stage of graduate medical training, e.g. M.D.), the residents acquire the title of Occupational and Sports Medicine Specialist. Residency duration is 48 months (4 years), carried out in four hosting institutions:
- Theoretical education (which lasts three months) takes place at the Schools of Medicine, University of Zagreb
- Practical training takes place in hospital departments, wards, and specialist outpatient clinics operating as residency hosts licensed by the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare
- In part, these courses take place in specialised Occupational and Sports Medicine practices ran by Occupational or Occupational & Sports Medicine Specialists licensed by the Ministry of Health
- Areas of occupational and sports medicine expertise that cannot be covered elsewhere are taught at the Faculty of Kinesiology at the University of Zagreb and the Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health.
The curriculum of the 41 month practical training includes:
- Occupational and sports physiology, working and sporting ability assessment (5 months)
- Career orientation and selection (3 months)
- Occupational and work-related diseases and Occupational Toxicology (6 months)
- Maritime, Underwater & Hyperbaric Medicine, as well as Aviation Medicine (2 months)
- Training and competitions (3 months)
- Clinical experience (12 months)
- Mental Health (2 months)
- Occupational and Sporting Environment, Health and Safety at Work and Sporting, Sanitation (2 months)
- Practice in the Occupational and Sports Medicine outpatient clinics and offices (6 months)
Within the framework of the above residency programme, the resident is obliged to complete postgraduate residency studies in Occupational and Sports Medicine. During the three months of residency, the resident is obliged to attend MD-tailored continuous education courses.
There are 3 training institutions providing training in occupational safety: The Colleges of Applied Sciences, located in Zagreb, Karlovac, Velika Gorica. In the fields of technical sciences and interdisciplinary technical sciences, the degree programmes “Professional study of safety” and “Specialist graduate professional study of safety” are offered.
Upon completion of the professional study in occupational safety, lasting six semesters, one acquires the title of baccalaureus engineer of safety (with the specialization options Occupational Safety or Fire Safety). The course has 180 ECTS points.
Upon completion of the specialist graduate professional study in occupational safety (with the specialization options Occupational Safety, Fire Safety and Environmental Safety) one acquires the title “professional specialist safety engineer”. This graduate study lasts two semesters and is credited with 60 ECTS points.
Engineers from other technical fields (e.g. mechanical engineers, electrical engineers, and chemical engineers) can gain further qualification as Experts in OSH, certified by the Ministry of Labour.
Other vocational training
Sector councils have a role in expressing and presenting labour market requirements, by defining necessary vocational qualifications. The councils are established according to the Vocational Education and Training (VET) Act, Official Gazette No. 30/2009). The current system of vocational education and training in Croatia covers 70.9% of the total secondary school population, (=135,930 pupils in 290 schools).
Awareness raising networks
Members of all professional associations are interconnected in a national OSH network. There are informal networks on social media (Facebook, Linkedin and similar).
Specialized technical, medical and scientific institutions
Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health (IMROH)
The Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health (IMROH) was established in 1947, originally as the Institute for Industrial Hygiene. Research started in 1949 studying the health impacts of physical and chemical workplace conditions. From 1953, the Institute expanded to include departments of oncology, immunochemistry, chemotherapy, balneology, climatology, and the history of medicine. IMROH applies a multi-disciplinary approach to studying how chemical, physical, and biological agents affect biological systems – in the general and working environment. This includes monitoring air, soil, water, and food, providing occupational health research, professional services, and expert advice to policy makers on environmental protection and safety at work.
Croatian Standards Institute
The Croatian Standards Institute, the national standards body of the Republic of Croatia, is an autonomous non-profit public institution. It pursues the following objectives related to standardisation and certification:
- increasing the safety level of products and processes
- protecting human health, lives and the environment
- promoting the quality of products, processes and services
- ensuring the appropriate use of work, materials and energy
- improving production efficiency
- controlling variety, ensuring compatibility and interchangeability
- removing technical barriers to international trade.
The Croatian Standards Institute is a member of the following international organisations:
- International Organisation for Standardization (ISO)
- International Electro-technical Commission (IEC)
- European Committee for Standardization (CEN)
- European Committee for Electro-technical Standardization (CENELEC)
- European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) (status: NSO member).
Institutions and organisations
Table 2: Main OSH institutions and organisations in Croatia
|Key actors in OSH dialogue||National OSH Council|
|Key OSH social partners||Croatian Employers' Association|
|Union of Autonomous Trade Unions of Croatia|
|Independent Trade Unions of Croatia|
|Association of Croatian Trade Unions|
|Croatian Trade Union Association|
|Association of Workers’ Trade Unions of Croatia|
|Federal OSH authorities and inspection services||Ministry of Labour and Pension System|
|The State Labour Inspectorate|
|Professional organisations of OSH services||Croatian Association of Occupational Medicine (CAOM)|
|Key compensation and insurance bodies||Croatian Institute for Health Insurance|
|Croatian Pension Insurance Institute|
|Key prevention institutes||Croatian Institute for Health Protection and Safety at Work|
|Key professional associations||Croatian Association of Occupational Medicine|
|Key research institutes||Institute for Occupational Medicine and Medical Research (Zagreb)|
|Key standardisation body||Croatian Standards Institute|
Source: Summary by the authors
- ILO - International Labour Organization, Croatia - Safety and Health Protection at the Workplace Act, 1996 and subsequent revisions up to 2012. Available at: 
- ILO – International Labour Organization, Convention concerning Occupational Safety and Health and the working environment C155, 1981. Available at: 
- Council Directive 89/391/EEC of 12 June 1989 on the introduction of measures to encourage improvements in the safety and health of workers at work EEC 89/391, Official Journal L 183 , 29/06/1989 P. 0001 - 0008. Available at: 
- Eur-Lex (no date). National Execution Measures Croatia Council Directive 89/391/EEC of 12 June 1989 on the introduction of measures to encourage improvements in the safety and health of workers at work. Retrieved 17 February 2014, from: 
- ILO – International Labour Organisation, Occupational Health Services Convention, 1985, No 16. Available at: 
- ILO – International Labour Organization (2012). NORMLEX Information System on International Labour Standards, Ratifications for Croatia. Retrieved 15 February 2014, from: 
- Marovic, F., National Safety and Health Profile in the Republic of Croatia , published by ILO, 2007. Available at: 
- ILO – International Labour Organization (no date). Database of national labour, social security and related human rights legislation: Croatia. Retrieved 17 February 2014, from: 
- Occupational safety and health regulations of 29 July 2003 to amend and supplement the regulations on the inspection of work environment, machines and structures with a high level of danger, Text No. 1856, 2003-07-29 HRV-2003-R-65185, Narodne Novine, official section, 2003-08-07, No. 126, 2003, p. 4772. Available at: 
- Act of 9 December 2005 on chemicals, Text No. 2899, Narodne Novine, Official section, 2005-12-21, No. 150, 2005, pp. 13356-13367. Available at: 
- Regulations of 30 March 2005 on conditions for granting authorizations to legal persons to exercise specialized tasks related to protection from ionising radiation, Text No. 858, Narodne Novine, official section, 2005-04-05, No. 44, 2005, pp. 2723-2725. Available at: 
- Regulations of 20 December 2004 on health conditions for work with sources of ionising radiation and measures, content, means and terms of conservation of data on medical examinations of persons working with sources of ionising radiation, Text No. 9, Narodne Novine, official section, 2005-01-03, No. 1, 2005, pp. 125-128. Available at: 
- Act of 3 December 2004 on explosive substances, Text No. 3089, Narodne Novine, official section, 2004-12-16, No. 178, 2004, pp. 8222-8232. Available at: 
- Act of 3 December 2004 on waste, Text No. 3083, Narodne Novine, official section, 2004-12-16, No. 178, 2004, pp. 8173-8190. Available at: 
- Regulations of 7 October 2004 on highest authorized levels of noise in the working and living environment, Text No. 2548, Narodne Novine, official section, 2004-10-19, No. 145, 2004, pp. 6142-6144. Available at: 
- Regulations of 9 September 2002 on conditions for the training of workers for safe work, Text No. 1842, Narodne Novine, official section, 2002-10-01, No. 114, 2002, pp. 4305-4307. Available at: 
- Act of 9 September 2002 to amend and supplement the Act on danger evaluation, Text No. 1839, Narodne Novine, official section, 2002-10-01, No. 114, 2002, pp. 4299-4300. Available at: 
- Law on Compulsory Health Insurance, NN80/13, adopted in 2013. Available at:
- Personal information from Marija Zavalić, Croatian Institute for Health Protection and Safety at Work.
- ILO – International Labour Organization (no date). Croatia, Act of 13 July 2006 on health insurance in relation with health protection at work, Text No. 2017, Narodne Novine, 2006-07-26, No. 85, pp. 6140-6149. Retrieved 17 February 2014, from: 
- ILO – International Labour Organization (no date). Croatia, Regulations of 23 October 2007 on standards and rights in the realization of health protection deriving from basic health insurance in relation to protection of health at work (Text No. 3372). Narodne Novine, 2007-11-07, No. 115, pp. 8573-8587. Retrieved 17 February 2014, from: 
- ILO – International Labour Organization (no date). Croatia, General conditions 5 February 2009 of the contract on health care implementation from basic health insurance for occupational health, Text No. 475, Narodne novine, 2009-02-18, 22, 6-20. Retrieved 17 February 2014, from: 
- Croatian Government, National OSH programme for 2009-2013. Available at: 
- ETUI – European Trade Union Institute (2013). National Industrial Relations - Croatia. Retrieved 25 September 2013, from: 
- EIROonline – European Industrial Relations Observatory online (2009). Croatia: Industrial relations profile. Available at: 
- Pezelj, A.M., Annual Review 2012 on Labour Relations and Social Dialogue in South East Europe: Croatia, Friedrich Ebert Stiftung (foundation), 2012. Available at: 
- Croatian Health Insurance Fund (no date). Webpage. Retrieved 1 December 2013, from: 
- Laliae, H., ‘International Occupational Medicine: Croatia’, Occupational Medicine, 58, 2008, p. 376. Available at: 
- Croatian Institute for Health Protection and Safety at Work (2010). Webpage. Retrieved 1 December 2013, from: 
- Zavalic, M., Stanje I Perspektiva Hrvatskog Zavoda za Zastitu Zdravlja i Sigurnost na Radu (Situation and prospects of the Croatian institute for health and safety at work) , Hrvatski Zavod za Zastitu Zdravlja i Sigurnost na Radu (Croatian Institute for Health Protection and Safety at Work), 2009. Retrieved 17 February 2014, from: 
- Laliae, H., ‘International Occupational Medicine: Croatia’, Occupational Medicine, 58, 2008, p. 376. Available at: 
- Personal information from Vlasta Dečković-Vukres, Head of the Department of Occupational Health, Croatian National Institute of Public Health
- Agency for Vocational Education and Training and Adult Education (2008). VET system in Croatia. Retrieved 15 February 2014, from: 
- IMROH - Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health (2010). Homepage. Retrieved 6 November 2013, from: 
- Croatian Standards Institute (no date). Homepage. Retrieved 1 December 2013, from: 
Links for further reading
WHO – World Health Organization, Assessment of health-system crises preparedness – Croatia, 2012. Available at: 
Country Agenda between Croatia and the International Labour Organisation 2010-2011, Decent Work. Retrieved 17 February 2014, from: 
Voncina, L., Jemiai, N., Merkur, S., Golna, C., Maeda, A., Chao, S., Dzakula, A., ‘Croatia. Health system review’, Health Systems in Transition, European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies (editor), Vol. 8, No. 7, 2006. Available at: 
Voncina, L., Kehler, J., Evetovits, T., Bagat, M., ‘Health insurance in Croatia: dynamics and politics of balancing revenues and expenditures’, The European Journal of Health Economics, Apr.,11(2), 2010, pp. 227-233. Available at: