OSH system at national level - Malta

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  IOM

Juliet Hassard, Ceri Jones, Tom Cox Birkbeck College, University Of London

Occupational safety and health legislative framework

Since acceding membership in the European Union (EU), Malta has embarked in the implementation of an array of regulations in line with the requirement of the Acquis Communautaire ,[1]. As part of Malta’s preparations for accession to the EU, a review process was undertaken in order to appraise and compare the Maltese OSH legislative framework to that of the EU. The aim of this review process was to facilitate the harmonization of Maltese occupational health and safety legislation with that of the EU. This review process was aided by a twinning agreement signed by the ministers responsible for health and safety in Britain and Malta. The aim of this agreement was to help Malta develop the capability to adopt European Union health and safety standards and legislation. This project was funded by the EU for one year, and was an active collaboration between the Britain’s Health and Safety Executive, Ireland’s Health and Safety Authority, and the Occupational Health and Safety Authority (OHSA) in Malta [2].

This legislative review exercise resulted in the publication of a number of new legislation and regulations (referred as legal notices) aimed to facilitate the transposition of the EU directive on health and safety (Council Directive 89/391/EEC). More specifically, in 1998, the Ministry for Social Policy oversaw the development of the new draft legislation concerning health and safety in general. During this period the Act for the Promotion of Occupational Health and Safety, 1994 (ACT VII of 1994) [1] [3] was repealed and replaced with the more updated Act XXVII of 2000 [4], known as the Occupational Health and Authority Act. This is currently the foundational piece of national legislation in Malta in relation to occupational health and safety.

The Occupational Health and Safety Authority Act [4] formally introduced the principle of protection of health and safety at the workplace into Maltese law; and in so doing, this established the national Occupational Health and Safety Authority. The Occupational Health and Safety Authority Act applies to all workplaces in both the private and public sector, and to all work activities. This is in line with the contents of the Council Directive 89/391/EEC/. However, contrary to the provisions of the Framework Directive, the Act is also applicable to workers carrying out domestic duties. The Act came into effect in its entirety on the 29th of January 2002.

In general, the aforementioned Act outlined to employers the occupational health and safety measures that are required, without exception, in any workplace. However, since this time, more detailed requirements have been enacted through Parliament in relation to specific areas of occupational health and safety; with the primary aim to render Maltese employment regulation more in line with Acquis Communautaire requirements [1]. These regulations are an important part of the process of transposing the EU directive into national Maltese legislation.

The following are a number of enacted legislations and regulations that pertain to occupational health and safety.

  • L.N. 92/2000 - Protection of Maternity at Work Places Regulations, 2000; [5]
  • L.N. 91/2000 - Protection of Young Persons at Work Places Regulations, 2000; [6]
  • L.N. 45/2002 - Workplace (Provision of Health and, or Safety Signs) Regulations, 2002; [7]
  • L.N. 44/2002 - Workplace (Minimum Health and Safety Requirements) Regulations, 2002; [8]
  • L.N. 43/2002 - Minimum Health and Safety Requirements for Work with Display Screen Equipment Regulations, 2002; [9]
  • L.N. 10/2002 - Occupational Health and Safety Appeals Board (Procedural) Regulations, 2002; [10]
  • L.N. 379/2003 -Protection of Workers in the Mineral Extracting Industries through Drilling and Workers in Surface and Underground Mineral Extracting Industries Regulations, 2003 [11]
  • L.N. 228/2003 - Protection of Workers from Risks related to Exposure to Biological Agents at Work Regulations, 2003; [12]
  • L.N. 227/2003 - Protection of the Health and Safety of Workers from the Risks related to Chemical Agents at Work Regulations, 2003; [13]
  • L.N. 122/2003 - Regulations on the protection of workers from the risks related to exposure to carcinogens or mutagens at work, 2003; [14]
  • L.N. 121/2003 - Minimum requirements for the use of personal protective equipment at work regulations, 2003; [15]
  • L.N. 120/2003 - Regulations establishing a first list of indicative occupational exposure limit values on the protection of the health and safety of workers from the risks related to chemical agents at work, 2003; [16]
  • L.N. 37/2003 - Control of Major Accident Hazards Regulations, 2003; [17]
  • L.N. 36/2003 - General Provisions for Health and Safety at Work Places Regulations, 2003; [18]
  • L.N. 35/2003 - Protection against Risks of Back Injury at Work Places Regulations, 2003; [19]
  • L.N. 283/2004 - Protection of Young Persons at Work Places (Amendment) Regulations, 2004; [20]
  • L.N. 282/2004 - Work Equipment (Minimum Safety and Health Requirements) Reg., 2004; [21]
  • L.N. 281/2004 - Work Place (Minimum Health and Safety Requirements for Work at Construction Sites) Regulations, 2004; [22]
  • L.N. 41/2004 - Work Place (Minimum Requirements for Work) (Confined Spaces and Spaces having Explosive Atmospheres) Regulations, 2004; [23]
  • L.N. 371/2005 - Work Place (Minimum Health and Safety Requirements for the Protection of Workers from Risks resulting from Exposure to Vibration) Regulations, 2005; [24]
  • L.N. 06/2005 - Control of Major Accident Hazards (Amendment) Regulations, 2005; [25]
  • L.N. 323/2006 - Protection of Workers from the Risks related to Exposure to Asbestos at Work Regulations, 2006; [26]
  • L.N. 158/2006 - Work Place (Minimum Health and Safety Requirements for the Protection of Workers from Risks resulting from Exposure to Noise) Regulations, 2006; [27]
  • L.N. 353/2007 - Protection of the Health and Safety of Workers from the Risks related to Chemical Agents at Work (Amendment) Regulations, 2007; [28]
  • L.N. 231/2007 - Inspection of Lifts Regulations, 2007; [29]
  • L.N. 250/2010- Work Place (Minimum Health and Safety Requirements for the Protection of Workers from Risks resulting from Exposure to Artificial Optical Radiation) Regulations, 2010; [30]
  • L.N. 348/2011 -Work Place (First Aid (Amendment) Regulations, 2011. [31]

National strategy and programmes

The Occupational Health and Safety Authority Act of 2000 [4] formally introduced the principle of protection of health and safety at the workplace into Maltese law; in so doing, this established the national governmental occupational health and safety authority (the Occupational Health and Safety Authority, further referred to as OHSA). The OHSA is of central importance in developing and driving national level occupational health and strategy and programmes, initiatives and policies. In 2007, the OHSA published the Strategic Plan 2007 to 2012, a national plan for occupational health and safety ("Occupational Health and Safety: Consolidating achievements and engaging further commitment, Strategic plan: 2007 to 2012") [32]. The strategy aimed to ensure that the OHSA fulfils its responsibilities in the field of occupational health and safety, whilst continuing to install a sense of responsibility and commitment from its social partners. The strategy stated Malta’s commitment to actively participate effectively in discussions regarding the continuous development of occupational and safety levels within the European Union community. It also gave direction by identifying a number of key priority areas. It featured as one of its key objectives to achieve an ongoing, sustainable and consistent reduction in accidents and injuries at work, and occupational illness and disease. This was achieved mostly through initiatives taken by OHSA-Malta which address a number of priority areas highlighted in the strategy, which included the organisation of a wide range of awareness-raising activities promoting a culture of risk prevention.

The current Strategic Plan for Occupational Health and Safety 2014-2020 [33] was finalised in 2015. It continues building on what has been achieved so far, and is intended to present the intention and direction of OHSA. The vision of the Strategic Plan is the development of a culture, which goes beyond the workplace, which adopts a holistic view of health and that values risk prevention. Appropriate preventative measures will be in place in all workplaces in Malta to minimize the possibility and severity of occupational incidents and illness. The ultimate goal is zero preventable incidents that can affect health and safety.

Following objectives are laid down in the Strategic Plan 2014-2020:

Legislation, compliance and enforcement:

  • Continuous development of an effective legislative framework, achieved through the meaningful consultation of all stakeholders;
  • Development of a consistent and transparent enforcement process model that ensures compliance with health and safety legislation; the support of duty holders, especially SMEs to help them achieve compliance, including by the dissemination of adequate information and guidance, and the provision of advice to all who require it;
  • Soliciting action and initiatives by all duty holders to decrease reliance on OHSA services, while ensuring the competence of services provided by 'external competent persons

Capacity building:

  • The development of the Authority’s human resources through recruitment and training, and the availability of information and tools to assist OHS Officers and other employees of the Authority.

Communicating the benefits of OHS, through:

  • seeking partnerships with all stakeholders so as to develop a preventive culture that encourages holistic approaches towards healthy lifestyles; increasing the level of awareness regarding the benefits of adequate health and safety levels;
  • disseminating information on the evaluation of risks and their control;
  • promoting and carrying out training.

Taking appropriate action against existing and emerging risks:

  • Fostering and promoting action against both traditional risks and emerging ones, based on appropriate research;
  • Improving the quality of service provided by occupational health service providers, and improving the effectiveness of health surveillance.

Evaluating effectiveness of actions taken:

  • Actions will be assessed against KPIs (Key Performanc indicators) determined or adopted by the authority, whilst ensuring the efficiency of all services provided. The KPIs are a mix between 'leading' indicators that relate more to the progress of OHSA actions and productivity as well as the 'lagging' indicators that relate to the effect the OHSA actions are having in the workplace[33].

The three main tripartite social dialogue institutions for OSH are: The Employment Relations Board (ERB), the Malta Council for Economic and Social Development (MCESD) and the Occupational Health and Safety Authority (OHSA).

Social dialogue

The established model of industrial relations in Malta is that of a voluntary, bipartite, collective bargaining at the enterprise level, in a traditionally polarised realtionship between employers and trade unions. However, in recent decades, a patttern of corporate, tripartite, national level bargaining, based on a model of social dialogue, has begun to gradually emerge [34].

Social dialogue at national level

The Employment Relations Board (ERB), the Malta Council for Economic and Social Development (MCESD) and the Occupational Health and Safety Authority (OHSA) are the three main tripartite social dialogue institutions that deal with working conditions. During the last years, these three bodies were instrumental in bringing significant changes at both enterprises, sectorial and national levels [34].

The ERB is a tripartite consultative body set up by government under the Employment and Industrial Relations Act, 2002 [35]. The board comprises four representatives, four employees’ representatives and four members appointed by the government. The board has to be consulted before the publication of any employment-related legal notices. Hence, the social partners, through the ERB, have a direct effect on Maltese legislation [34].

The MCESD, established in 1988 and given legal status by an Act of Parliament (Act XV, Chapter 431) in 2001, is a legal consultative and advisory body to the government. The council provides a forum for consultation on economic and social development issues for social partners [34].

The OHSA aims to verify that the health and safety protection standards set out by the Act XXVII of 2000 are upheld. The authority consists of nine members including two members representing the interest of workers and another two representing the interest of employers and five government officials. The OHSA’s activities are divided into five major areas. These are: the construction, quarrying and mineral extraction; machinery, equipment, plant and installation including Control of Major Accidents Hazards (COMAH); chemical and biological agents; radiation protection and general and accident investigation [34].

There are a number of social partners that play an active role in the social dialogue process at a national level in relation to working conditions and more broadly occupational health and safety: including, the Malta Chamber of Commerce, Enterprises & Industries; Malta Hotel’s & Restaurants Associations; Association of General Retailers & Trade Union; General Worker’s Union; United Worker’s Union; The Gozo Business Chamber; Confederation of Malta Trade Unions; and Building Industry Consultative Council [36].

Social dialogue at sectoral level

At a sectoral level, as covered in Section 3.1, the three main dialogue institutions that handle working conditions are The Employment Relations Board (ERB), the Malta Council for Economic and Social Development (MCESD) and the Occupational Health and Safety Authority (OHSA) [34].

Social dialogue at enterprise level

At the company level, it is the duty of the employer to ensure that a Worker’s Health and Safety Representative or Representatives are chosen, elected or designated; and, in turn, that they are consulted in advance by the employer on matters that may affect occupational health and safety. The procedure of appointment/ selection of a WHS representative is regulated by LN 36 of 2003 (General Provisions for Health and Safety at Work Places Regulations) [18], and revolves around the principle that WHS representatives should be appointed by workers themselves. In addition, as specified by the legislative framework, it is the duty of every worker to co-operate with the employer and with the Health and Safety Representative or Representatives at the workplace on all matters pertaining to health and safety [1] [4].

OSH infrastructure

OSH infrastructure scheme

The main stakeholders involved in relation to occupational health and safety in Malta are the Government, workers (& their representatives) and the employers (& their representatives). However, other stakeholders are involved – the media, politicians, the Church, Government as the largest employer in Malta, commercial services providers (including occupational health and safety training centres), importers & manufacturers of products / equipment used at work and civil society.

Figure 1: OSH infrastructure scheme

National competent bodies

OSH authorities and inspection services

Occupational Health and Safety Authority The occupational safety and health national infrastructure is structured and influenced by the OHSA. The main aims and objectives of the Occupational Health and Safety Authority include raising awareness of health and safety as an issue in the workplace, providing information and promoting training on health and safety matters as well as consulting widely and effectively on health and safety regulations and guidance. The OHSA is responsible for the ensuring that the physical, psychological and social well-being of all Maltese workers in all workplaces is promoted; and, in turn, to ensure that workers health and safety is actively safeguarded, by whoever is obliged to do so, by ensuring that the levels of occupational health and safety protection (as established by the Act and by the regulations made under this Act) are maintained. Since Malta’s accession to the European Union, the OHS Authority has continued the exercise of harmonization of all new occupational health and safety legislation with EU OHS Directives, while at the same time reviewing existing legislation to ensure that there are no regulatory gaps, and to identify any conflicting or burdensome legislation, with the scope of simplifying it.

Among its various fuctions, the OHSA: (1) applies the provisions of the Act and any regulations or orders made there under; (2) establishes strategies by which the general national policy relating to occupational health and safety may be implemented; (3) advises the Minister regarding the making of regulations; (4) monitors compliance with the relevant health and safety legislation; (5) prepares regulations and codes of practice; (6) promotes the dissemination of information, education and training;(7) collates and analyses data and statistics; (8) keeps registers of plants, installations, equipment, machinery, articles, substances or chemicals in use at work; (9) carries out investigations on any matter concerning occupational health and safety; (10) promotes and carries out scientific research; and (11) keeps registers of persons competent to give advice on matters related to OHS [37]. Inspection services As aforementiond, the OHSA is the national statutory body with responsibility for enforcing ocupational safety and health law, promoting and encouraging accident prevention, and providing infomation and advice to companies, organisations and individuals. The Authority considers enforcement as one of its key core functions – the purpose of enforcement is to ensure that duty holders effectively control risks at their place of work. Through the enactment of the Act (Act XXVII of 2000) [4], a number of health and safety officers were appointed by the OHSA. These officers are deemed to be Public Officers under Criminal Code, and, thus, are protected by law whilst on duty. These inspection officers have a number of powers at law, including: to enter freely into any workplace (day or night) without any pervious notice; and to inspect any document the keeping of which which is prescribed by any OSH regulation; and to issue order to any person to preserve OHS.

OSH services

Internal OSH services
At the enterprise level, employers are obliged (as detailed in Act XXVII of 2000) to provide appropriate levels of information, instruction, training and supervision in order to ensure workers health and safety. Legal notice 36 of 2003 (General Provisions for Health and Safety at Work Places Regulations) [18] outlines a number of protective and prevention services and measures required by law to be taken/ implemented by employers.

In any workplace, an employer is required to designate one or more persons having the necessary aptitude, capabilities, competence and training to assist the organisation in relation to the protection of occupational health and safety, and the prevention and management of occupational risks in the workplace. The designated person needs to have completed at least a Diploma in Occupational Health and Safety from the University of Malta, or a similarly qualification recognised by the National Commission for Higher Education. A minimum two year experience in the field is required, before the designated person is eligible to be registered on the OHSA’s Competent Person Register.

If the employer/ organisation, for whatever reason, cannot recruit or obtain competent person/ personnel to ensure all legally obliged prevention and protection measures are met (and ideally measures/systems that go beyond minimum legal requirement are implemented); than it is the responsibility of the employer to enlist competent external services or persons having the necessary aptitudes, and the necessary personal and professional means to oversee this process.

Occupational (external) OSH services
As aforementioned, if an employer is unable to retain an in-house internal occupational health and safety service, it is the responsability of the employer to recruit external prevention services. The OHSA provides a ‘component persons register’ on their website [38]. This system provides a list of qualified practitioners in occupational health and safety qualfied experts that can be comissioned by organisations to provide support or services in developing or maintaining their health and safety management systems.

Compensation and insurance bodies

Malta has a social security system as part of its social welfare national scheme. An individual who suffers a personal injury caused by accident arising out of or in the course of his/her employment or self-occupation; or has developed an illness or disease as a result of their work envrionment may be entitled to compensation through the Maltese Social Security Division: entitled Injury Benefit/Industrial Diseas [39] [40]. In order to claim for this benefit the worker must complete a standard issued application form with a report of the incidence or illness. The claim form must be signed by a the treating doctor (indicating the nature and duration fo the injury/ disease and anticipated recovery period), and counter signed by the employer. Once a claim is received, the case is referred to a Medical panel, appointed by the Minister of Education, Employment and the Family. The role of this panel is to examine the claim from a medical prespective, and establish whether the injury/ disease is a consequence of the work environment.

Beyond the social security system in Malta, a worker can take civil action against their employer in order to receive compensation. Industrial disputes and compensation claims are over heard in the Industrial Tribunal, which is a juridical Tribunal made up of a Chairman and two members (one representing Workers’ interests and the other Employers’ interests). In relation to health and safety, this Tribunal hears cases in relation to illegal dismal and numerous cases of occupational disease, injury or ill-health. In cases of unfair dismissal the Tribunal may order re-instatement of the employee or award compensation, and has the authority to issue compensation [41] [42].

All organisations in Malta require industrial accident insurance, which is in the hands of private insurers. The Association of Insurance Brokers (AIB) is an association of most of the major insurance brokers in Malta, and represents the interests of the insurance brokerage industry. The Association interacts actively on behalf of its members with other insurance bodies in Malta, such as the Malta Insurance Association and the Malta Insurance Managers Association.

Other OSH bodies

Prevention Institutes

Occupational Health and Safety Authority is the main organisation in relation to health and safety in Malta. It is part of the Ministry of Social Policy.

The Institute of Health & Safety (IHS) provides health & safety, environmental, and medical services to international corporate clients.IHS offer a comprehensive range of internationally-accredited professional training and consultancy services in our areas of expertise. In addition they offer a number of accredited health and safety courses.

Professional associations

Malta Occupational Safety and Health Practitioners Association is the professional association for occupational health and safety practitioners.

Education, training and awareness raising

Legally required training for OSH specialists

As of 2010, the duty to designate one or more persons competent in OHS matters is the central responsibility of the employer. At an EU level, what determines competence in the designation of external competent persons is left to Member States. This Article of the Framework Directive EEC 89/391 was transposed into Maltese legislation through the publication of Legal Notice 36/2003 (The General Provisions for Health and Safety at Work Places Regulations, 2003) [18], specifically through regulation 9. in practice employer is obliged to: “designate one or more persons having the necessary aptitude, capabilities, competence and training to assist him in undertaking the measures which are required to be taken in relation to the protection of OHS and the prevention and control of occupational risks.” However “if, for whatever reason, the protective and preventive measures required by these regulations cannot be organised for lack of competent personnel in the undertaking and, or establishment, the employer shall enlist competent external services or persons having the necessary aptitudes and the necessary personal and professional means”.

At the moment, the OHSA administers a voluntary registration system requiring persons to be admitted to the OHSA’s Competent Person Register. In order to achieve this registration a person must have the minimum of a Diploma in Occupational Health and Safety from the University of Malta (or the equivalent from any other body recognised by the National Commission for Higher Education), and at least two years proven experience in the field [43].

The current system in place will be extended to cover accreditation of competent persons who will be able to carry out risk assessments, certifications and / or inspections with respect to current occupational health and safety regulations. The proposed accreditation system shall thus work on the drawing up of the mechanisms and criteria to assess and accredit such ‘competent persons’, who may thus tender their advice to employers. Through the new accreditation system, employers appointing such accredited persons will in turn be assured that these practitioners will be competent and can offer advice and service within the framework of current OHS laws [44].

Other vocational training

The Malta College of Arts, Science and Technology (MCAST) provides vocational and professional education and training. In addition, the OHSA offers courses to anyone who is interested to further their knowledge in health and safety. These include courses on first aid and safety at work, general health and safety information as well as the principles of risk assessment. In addition, the OHSA also offers tailor-made courses and courses held at the premises of the companies if they should so wish.

Awareness raising networks

An informal network has been established by the OHSA whereby persons may register themselves with the OHSA’s website; and are thus regularly updated on all matters concerning the local OHS scenario, not limited to the issue of new regulations

Specialized technical, medical and scientific institutions

Research Institutes

There are no specific institutes carrying out research in relation to occupational health and safety in Malta. However, the OHSA has conducted some recent research, which examines the prevalent occupational health and safety levels in Malta. This research focused on the following areas: (i) the delivery of statistics on (a) occupational injuries, (b) physical ill-health and (c) occupational psychological ill-health; while determining the root causes of such injuries and ill-health at a macro level (ii) the generation of data regarding the level of access of workers to internal and external OHS services and (iii) the calculation of costs of the prevailing risk levels of occcupational health and safety to the nation [45]. In addition, the Centre for Labour Studies (University of Malta) also conducts research broadly in the area of occupational health and safety.

Standardised institute

The ‘’Malta Standard Authority’’ (Malta Competition and Consumer Affairs Authority) is the national organisation responsible for the development and publication of standards. The MSA is a government agency under the Office of the Prime Minister. The MSA represents Malta at the European Level, as a member of the European Standardization Committee and at the worldwide level as a member of the International Standardization Organization.

Institutions and organisations

Table 1: Main OSH Institutions and organisations in Belgium

Key Actors in the Maltese OSH Dialogue Occupational Health and Safety Authority: [33]
Industrial Relations and Employment (Government of Malta): [34]
Malta Council for Economic and Social Devlepment: [35]
Key social partners in the Maltese OSH field Malta Chamber of Commerce, Enterprises & Industries: [36]
Malta Hotels & Restaurants Association: [37]
Building Industry Consultative Council: Association of General Retailers & Traders Union: [38]
The Gozo Business Chamber: [39]
Building Industry Consultative Council [40]
Association of Insurance Brokers: [41]
Confederation of Malta Trade Unions: [42]
Malta’s General Workers Union: [43]
Federal OSH authorities and inspection services Occupational Health and Safety Authority: [44]
Key compensation and insurance bodies Association of Insurance Brokers: [45]
Key prevention institutes Occupational Health and Safety Authority: [46]
Institute of Health & Safety: [47]
Key professional associations Malta Occupational Safety and Health Practitioners Association
Key research institutes Occupational Health and Safety Authority: [48]
Centre for Labour Studies, University of Malta: [49]
Key standardisation body Malta Standard Authority (Malta Competition and Consumer Affairs Authority): [50]

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 Ward, E., Perceptions of health and safety in Malta, Health and Safety Executive, Norwich, 2002. Avaiable at: [1]
  2. HSE- Health and Safety Executive (2002). Health and safety ministers launch Malta twinning project (HSE press release). Retrieved on 18 May 2012 from: [2].
  3. Chapter 367 of 1994 Occupational Health & Safety (Promotion Act).
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 Chapter 424 of 2000 on Occupational Health and Safety Authority (Act XXVII). Available at: [3]
  5. Legal notice 92 of 2000 (Protection of Maternity at Work Places Regulations). Available at: [4]
  6. Legal notice 91 of 2000 (Protection of Young Persons at Work Places Regulations). Available at: [5]
  7. Legal notice 45 of 2002 (Workplace (Provision of Health and, or Safety Signs) Regulations). Available at: [6]
  8. Legal notice 44 of 2002 (Workplace (Minimum Health and Safety Requirements) Regulations). Available at: [7]
  9. Legal notice 43 of 2002 (Minimum Health and Safety Requirements for Work with Display Scrren Equipment Reguations). Available at: [8]
  10. Legal notice 10 of 2002 (Occupational Health and Safety Appleals Boards (Procedural) Regulations). Available at: [9]
  11. Legal notice 379 of 2003 (Protection of Workers in the Mineral Extracting Industries through Drilling and Workers in Surface and Underground Mineral Extracting Industries Regulations). Available at: [10]
  12. Legal notice 228 of 2003 (Protection of Workers from Risks related to Exposure to Biological Agents at Work Regulations) Available at: [11]
  13. Legal notice 227 of 2003 (Protection of the Health and Safety of Workers from the Risks related to Chemical Agents at Work Regulations) Available at: [12]
  14. Legal notice 122 of 2003 (Regulations on the protection of workers from the risks related to exposure to carcinogens or mutagens at work). Available at: [13]
  15. Legal notice 121 of 2003 (Minimum requirements for the use of personal protective equipment at work regulations). Available at: [14]
  16. Legal notice 120 of 2003 (Regulations establishing a first list of indicative occupational exposure limit values on the protection of the health and safety of workers from the risks related to chemical agents at work). Available at: [15]
  17. Legal notice 37 of 2003 (Control of Major Accident Hazards Regulations). Available at: [16]
  18. 18.0 18.1 18.2 18.3 Legal notice 36 of 2003 (General Provisions for Health and Safety at Work Places Regulations). Available at: [17]
  19. Legal notice 35 of 2003 (Protection against Risks of Back Injury at Work Places Regulations). Available at: [18]
  20. Legal notice 283 of 2004 (Protection of Young Persons at Work Places (Amendment) Regulations). Available at: [19]
  21. Legal notice 282 of 2004 (Work Equipment (Minimum Safety and Health Requirements) Regulation). Available at: [20]
  22. Legal notice 281 of 2004 (Work Place (Minimum Health and Safety Requirements for Work at Construction Sites) Regulations). Available at: [21]
  23. Legal notice 41 of 2004 (Work Place (Minimum Requirements for Work) (Confined Spaces and Spaces having Explosive Atmospheres) Regulations). Available at: [22]
  24. Legal notice 371 of 2005 (Work Place (Minimum Health and Safety Requirements for the Protection of Workers from Risks resulting from Exposure to Vibration) Regulations). Available at: [23]
  25. Legal notice 06 of 2005 (Control of Major Accident Hazards (Amendment) Regulations). Available at: [24]
  26. Legal notice 323 of 2006 (Protection of Workers from the Risks related to Exposure to Asbestos at Work Regulations). Available at: [25]
  27. Legal notice 158 of 2006 (Work Place (Minimum Health and Safety Requirements for the Protection of Workers from Risks resulting from Exposure to Noise) Regulations). Available at: [26]
  28. Legal notice 353 of 2007 (Protection of the Health and Safety of Workers from the Risks related to Chemical Agents at Work (Amendment) Regulations). Available at: [27]
  29. Legal notice 231 of 2007 (Inspection of Lifts Regulations). Available at: [28]
  30. Legal notice 250 of 2010 (Minimum Health and Safety Requirements for the Protection of Workers from Risks resulting from Exposure to Artificial Optical Radiation). Available at: [29]
  31. Legal notice 348 of 2011 (Work Place (First Aid (Amendment) Regulations). Available at: [30]
  32. OSHA – Occupational Health and Safety Authority (no date). Occupational Health and Safety: Consolidating Achievements and Engaging Further Commitment (strategic plan 2007-2012). Retrieved 12 April 2012, from: [31]
  33. 33.0 33.1 The Strategic Plan for Occupational Health and Safety 2014-2020. Available at: [32]
  34. 34.0 34.1 34.2 34.3 34.4 34.5 EUROFOUND - European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions (2008). Working Conditions and Social Dialogue – Malta. Retrieved 18 May 2012, from: http://www.eurofound.europa.eu/comparative/tn0710019s/mt0710019q.htm.
  35. Chapter 452 of 2002 Employment and Industrial Relations Act, 2002. Retrieved on 18 May 2012, from: http://ec.europa.eu/internal_market/finances/docs/actionplan/transposition/malta/d21.1-ml-mt.pdf.
  36. EU-OSHA – European Agency for Safety and Health at Work. Malta. Retrieved from 17 May 2012, from: http://osha.europa.eu/en/oshnetwork/focal-points/malta/index_html.
  37. OSHA – Occupational Health and Safety Authority (no date). About us. Retrived on 05 May 2012, from 12 April 2012, from: http://www.ohsa.org.mt/about_us.asp.
  38. OSHA – Occupational Health and Safety Authority (no date). Register Books. Retrieved on 17 May 2012, from: http://www.ohsa.org.mt/showpage.asp?pageid=40.
  39. Ministry for Justice, Dialogue and the Family (no date). Injury Benefits. Retrieved on 18 May 2012, from: https://secure2.gov.mt/socialpolicy/socprot/social_benefits/short_term_ben/injury_ben/info_injury_ben.aspx.
  40. European Union – Your Europe (2011). Staff Welfare – Malta. Retrieved on 17 May 2012, from: http://europa.eu/youreurope/business/doing-business-responsibly/staff-welfare/malta/index_en.htm.
  41. Industrial Relations and Employment (2010). Industrial Tribunal. Retrieved on 19 April 2012, from : http://www.industrialrelations.gov.mt/industryportal/industrial_relations/industrial_tribunal/service_trib.aspx
  42. Schembri, M., ‘The right to compensation in the Maltese economy: Reference to Maltese case law’, Bank of Valletta Review, No.39, 2009, pp. 48-63.
  43. University of Malta- Diploma in Social Studies (Occupational Health and Safety). Retrieved on 9 October 2012,from: http://www.um.edu.mt/cls/overview/UDSSOHSPTE-2010-1-O
  44. OSHA – Occupational Health and Safety Authority (2010). Accrediation System for Occupational Health and Safety Professionals in Malta. Retrieved on 5 May 2012, from: http://www.ohsa.org.mt/docs/accreditation_system.pdf
  45. OSHA – Occupational Health and Safety Authority (2011). Occupational Health and Safty in Malta: A Synopsis Report. Retrieved on 29 May 2012, from: http://www.ohsa.org.mt/docs/Summary_Report.pdf.

Links for further reading

Ward, E., Perceptions of health and safety in Malta, Health and Safety Executive, Norwich, 2002. Available at: http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/crr_htm/2002/crr02444.htm