OSH system at national level - Spain

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Carsten Brück, Kooperationsstelle Hamburg IFE GmbH; Feedback provided by O. Fernández, R. Caballero, INSHT


OSH legislative framework

In Spain, OSH is regulated by the Prevention of Occupational Risks Act of November 8 1995, which covers all employees except domestic workers. It also shall not apply to those activities whose characteristics do not permit it in the field of public service, e.g. police, security, armed forces and military activities, as well as civil protection. It brings the Spanish legal system in line with Europe, notably EEC Directive 89/391 [1] which deals with measures to improve OSH. It is the legal framework for regulating technical aspects of the preventive measures. The Act is based on Article 40.2 of the Spanish Constitution of 1978, where responsibility for OSH is entrusted to the state - to the national legislator and authorities of the central government[2]. National law is then executed by the authorities in the seventeen Autonomous Communities (Comunidades Autónomas)[3]. National legislation and strategy are negotiated with both the Autonomous Communities and the social partners in the form of social dialogue. The National Commission for Safety and Health at Work plays a significant role in the negotiation process (CNSST)[4].


National OSH strategy and programmes

Estrategia Española de Seguridad y Salud en el Trabajo (EESST) 2015-2020

The Council of Ministers approved the current Spanish Strategy on Safety and Health at Work (EESST 2015-2020)[5], presented by the Minister of Labour and Social Affairs, on 24 April 2015. The Strategy follows the Spanish Strategy on Safety and Health at Work for the period 2007 to 2012 (EESST 2007-2012)[6]. Both strategies are the result of a commitment by the central government, regional governments, employers’ organisations and most representative trade unions. The Strategies were agreed with all social partners and autonomous regions after an extended process of social dialogue. Together with the Government, these agents are the members of the National Commission for Safety and Health at Work (CNSST), the joint body on which institutions participate in the area of occupational safety and health.

The former EESST 2007-2012 was the instrument for establishing the general policy framework for the prevention of occupational risks – above all in the medium and long term. It was the first time that a government in Spain had presented a strategy of this scope to tackle the problem of accidents at work and occupational illnesses. The main objective was to create an instrument at national level to address the problem in an integrated, rational and coherent way, in line with the Community Strategy on Safety and Health at Work 2007-2012. EESST 2007-2012 defined three objectives for preventing occupational risks in companies and five objectives related to public policies to reduce both the number of accidents at work and occupational illness [6]:

  • Objective 1. Achieve better and more effective compliance with the risk prevention legislation, particularly among small and medium-sized enterprises.
  • Objective 2. Improve the effectiveness and quality of the prevention system, incl. all in entities specialised in the field.
  • Objective 3. Strengthen the role of the social partners and the involvement of workers and employers in the improvement of safety and health at work.
  • Objective 4. Develop and consolidate the culture of prevention in Spanish society
  • Objective 5. Improve the systems of information and research in safety and health at work
  • Objective 6. Promote training in occupational risk prevention
  • Objective 7. Bolster the public institutions working in the field of occupational risk prevention
  • Objective 8. Improve institutional coordination in the prevention of occupational risks.


The current Strategy - EESST 2015-2020 reflects the European Union Occupational Safety and Health Strategic Framework 2014-2020 and is the result of an initial analysis of the situation that revealed the main strengths and weaknesses of the system. The evaluation of the EESST 2007-2012 is published in Spanish[7].

The main characteristics and objectives of the EESST 2015-2020 are to promote better enforcement of the legislation on safety and health at work and the consolidation in the autonomous regions, especially in small and medium enterprises and to encourage the continuous improvement of working conditions of all workers with special attention to the prevention of occupational diseases and work-related diseases. The EESST 2015-2020 is divided into a number of general objectives, and specific objectives, which are implemented through specific lines of action.

The general objectives are:

  • Strengthen implementation of existing occupational health and safety rules and their consolidation in the autonomous regions, particularly in small and medium-sized enterprises.
  • Foster the continued improvement of working conditions across the board for all workers, particularly in terms of the prevention of occupational diseases and work-related illnesses.

The specific objectives are:

  • Objective 1: Improve the effectiveness of the institutions dedicated to occupational risk prevention.
  • Objective 2: Boost action by the public authorities in the area of analysis, research, promotion, support, technical assistance, supervision and control of occupational risk prevention.
  • Objective 3: Promote the improvement of occupational safety and health conditions with the participation of the social partners and regional governments, particularly in the sectors, activities, groups and companies at greatest risk.
  • Objective 4: Strengthen the engagement of the social partners and the involvement of employers and workers in improving occupational safety and health.

The EESST 2015-2020 will be monitored through a four-party working group (central government, regional governments, employers and trade unions) that has been set up as part of the functions of the National Occupational Safety and Health Commission (CNSST), the joint body on which institutions participate in the area of occupational safety and health. At the end of each Action Plan the level of achievement of the targets will be assessed, and the plan’s contents may be extended into the following plans until 2020, the completion date of the Strategy. Table 1 shows the details of the activity plan.

Table 1: Details of the activity plan[5]

Objectives Specific objectives
Objective 1: Improve the effectiveness of the institutions dedicated to occupational risk prevention. 1. Strengthen and enhance public institutions dedicated to the prevention of occupational hazards and adjust their functions to the current demands of society.

2. Create and implement mechanisms for coordination among institutions competent in prevention, both in the workplace and in the health, education and industry.

3. Promote institutional collaboration in the development of public policies preventive.

4. Strengthen the leadership of the government in managing the prevention of occupational hazards

Objective 2: Boost action by the public authorities in the area of analysis, research, promotion, support, technical assistance, supervision and control of occupational risk prevention. 2.A Promotion, support and technical assistance

1. Inform and make aware businesses with particular attention to SMEs and micro enterprises about the prevention of occupational hazards and the availability of official tools that facilitate enforcement.
2. Improve accessibility and enforcement in the prevention of
occupational hazards
2.B Survey and control compliance
1. Adjust the penalties and procedural rules for offenses in the Social policy legislation
2. Develop specific inspection activities designed to promote, facilitate and ensure compliance with norms
3. Improve and strengthen complementarity between analysis and assistance, monitoring and control
4. Develop procedures for cooperation between public authorities to enhance joint action and new tools actions
2.C Incentive development
1. Promote excellence in the management of safety and health at work by recognising, exchange and dissemination of good practice.
2. To promote the analysis and efficiency of incentive measures
2.D  Awareness
Enhance the awareness of society in the prevention of occupational risks, with greater involvement of the media
2 E. Education and training
1. Consolidate the integration of training related to the prevention of occupational risks into different stages of the education system.
2. Design and promote the education of specific groups.
3. Adapt the rules on training in PRL to changes
2.F  Information and research
1. Improve the coordination of the activities developed by governmental institutions in the collection, analysis and dissemination of information about the prevention of occupational risks and about studies and research in that area, setting up a quality information system 2. Strengthen and revitalise the network of public research institutes dealing with OSH. Strengthen their cooperation to optimise R & D in OSH. 3. Promote the generation of knowledge on safety and health work and improve its accessibility.

Objective 3: Promote the improvement of occupational safety and health conditions with the participation of the social partners and regional governments, particularly in the sectors, activities, groups and companies at greatest risk. 3.A Strengthens actions of the government

1. Promote the improvement of working conditions in sectors and activities with high incidence rates of occupational accidents and diseases.
2. Promote road safety in cooperation with the Directorate General of Traffic, with the aim of reducing work related traffic accidents
3. Design and implement an action plan for reducing musculoskeletal disorders
4. Promote safety and health of specific groups.
5. Develop and disseminate reference methodologies for assessing psychosocial risks reference, enabling a better understanding and prevention of such risks.
6. Studying emerging risks, their causes and impact on safety and health workers, particularly those derived from new technologies.
3.B Occupational diseases
Improve and promote the  research on occupational diseases,
as well as detection and communication, with the aim of preferring  prevention to rehabilitation.
3.C Health surveillance
1. Promote more efficient monitoring of health.
2. Health promotion: promote the culture of healthy behaviour in the workplace.
3.D Prevention management in SMEs
1. Develop tools to facilitate and harmonize preventive management in small businesses regardless of preventive methodologies
2. Promote the integration of prevention in the business processes, especially in SMEs and micro-enterprises.
3. Develop and disseminate tools to facilitate the coordination of business activities  

Objective 4: Strengthen the engagement of the social partners and the involvement of employers and workers in improving occupational safety and health. 4.A Strengthen the role of consultative bodies and institutional participation:

1. Set up Working Groups in the National Commission on Safety and Health at Work to promote compliance with the objectives and priorities agreed upon in this strategy.
2. Promote the actions of the Foundation for the Prevention of Occupational Hazards.
4.B Enhance collective bargaining to reach agreements:
1. Promote the inclusion of the corresponding collective bargaining agreements (through its Monitoring Committee) criteria and guidelines on prevention of occupational hazards.
Strengthen the commitment of the workers and employers to comply with the plan of prevention of occupational risks of the enterprise.
4.C Promote the integration of risk prevention in SMEs with greater involvement of employers and workers:
1. Develop sectoral programs that foster greater involvement of employers, workers and their representatives in preventive activities through specific agreements of the parties in the collective bargaining aimed at SMEs and in cross-cutting programs.
4.D Encourage the commitment of the company and collaboration of workers to achieve integrated prevention management:
1. Design and implement formulas recognition and incentives to companies that promote collaboration and involvement of workers, through their representatives in the preventive management.
4.E Promote the culture of safety and health in the company:
1. Promote training in prevention of occupational risks for prevention delegates and middle managers to achieve a dynamic effect on strengthening preventive culture.
2. Promote awareness of employers about the benefits of management leadership in improving working conditions and the importance of a results-oriented prevention policy.

An evaluation of the former strategy has been performed and is published (in Spanish)[8]: "The EESST 2015-2020 will be monitored through a four-party working group (central government, regional governments, employers and trade unions) that has been set up as part of the functions of the National Occupational Safety and Health Commission. At the end of each Action Plan the level of achievement of the targets will be assessed, and the plan’s contents may be extended into the following plans until 2020, the completion date of the Strategy."

Further strategic approaches

In accordance with the national strategy, the Autonomous Communities of Spain have also adopted regional OSH strategies. Those can be seen as political instruments for achieving the overall goals of the national strategy by adapting its provisions to the economic circumstances and labour markets in the different regions[9].

Social dialogue

At national level

The National Commission for Safety and Health at Work (CNSST) is the OSH advisory body for the Government, Autonomous Communities, and Social Partners[10]. The social partners also fund prevention campaigns in the Foundation for the Prevention of Occupational Risks (Fundación para la Prevención de Riesgos Laborales, FUNPRL). The Foundation was designed to promote improved OSH, particularly in small enterprises. It reports to the National Commission for Safety and Health at Work, and is partly funded by the Prevention and Rehabilitation Fund, which is drawn on management surpluses of the Social Security Work Accident and Professional Sickness Provident Entities (Mutuas de Accidentes de Trabajo y Enfermedades Profesionales de la Seguridad Social abbreviated as ‘MATEPSS’). There are two most represented trade union organisations (confederations) in Spain: General Workers Union (Unión General de Trabajadores UGT) and Workers’ Commissions (Comisiones Obreras CC.OO). They both represent more than 35% of workers each and unite trade unions of practically all sectors [11][12]. Both organisations are represented on national and regional level. In addition there are various regional and sectoral organisations. A non-exhaustive list can be found in chapter 5. Most professional associations are integrated in ‘CEOE’ - the Spanish umbrella organisation for industry associations. The Spanish Conferderation of Small and Medium Enterprises (Confederación Española de la Pequeña y Mediana Empresa, CEPYME) plays is also an important role in social dialogue on national level. (See also: Social dialogue in OSH)

At sectoral, provincial or regional level

In Spain, sector-based collective negotiation is used to negotiate the creation of specific sector bodies, made up of employers and workers representatives. They develop programmes designed to raise awareness and inform about the occupational risks in the sector. In accordance with article 85.1 LET (Ley del Estatuto de los Trabajadores) issues of labour-related matters or matters of economic nature as well as matters of employment conditions including occupational structures, wages and working time, duration, termination and expiration of the employment contract, disciplinary issues, health and safety in the workplace can be settled in form of collective agreements[13].

There are some industry agreements for the whole of Spain, such as those in the construction, banking and chemical industries. Regional-based collective negotiation is used to promote similar programmes among employers, trade unions, and the autonomous regions. Large and medium sized companies will normally have their own agreements, sometimes at plant level, while smaller employers are covered by provincial agreements for their industry. ETUI reports, that many agreements are made on sectoral level by provincial subdivisions of social partners that cover most of the Spanish companies. However the national government also gave a new option for single company negotiations and agreements[14].

One recent example of national collective agreement for the construction sector is the “Tarjeta Profesional de la Construction” (TPC) (Professional Card for Construction). TPC is a certification system for prevention issues for the whole sector. The TPC has been underpinned by the national collective agreement for the construction sector, making it compulsory for workers in all companies covered by the agreement to have the Card by 2012[15].

At company level

The Health and Safety Committee (Comité de seguridad y salud, CSS) is a bipartite body consisting of an equal number of safety representatives and management representatives (or delegates, in companies with 50 or more employees). Its composition and remit are set out in Articles 38 / 39 of the Law on Prevention. It is to be consulted on questions of OSH policy and prevention activities, and should meet quarterly, or whenever one of the two represented parties makes a request[16].

The main purpose of the CSS is to facilitate the discussion and exchange of opinions between workers’ representatives and management delegates. It can issue statements, but it has no decision-making power and cannot make binding agreements. It should be kept informed about prevention campaigns and OSH policies, and have access to all company documentation. Furthermore, it can propose its own ideas and actions plans, and conduct own analyses on OSH in the company. The safety representatives can also nominate company trade union representatives to participate in the consultation (although they cannot vote)[17].


OSH infrastructure

The Spanish OSH system is characterised by a number of stakeholders at various levels. While the national Parliament has exclusive power to pass OSH legislation, the Autonomous Communities are responsible for executing these laws. This vertical division of powers influences the policy-making process, as well as the work of the labour inspectorate. At national level, the Ministry of Employment and Social Security (MEYSS) is generally responsible for health and safety at work. The governments of the Autonomous Communities, which have the executive power, have their own authorities.

The National Work Safety and Health Institute (INSHT), a specialised State Administrative technical scientific body, is responsible for analysing and studying the conditions of safety and health at work, and for promoting improvements. To this end, they co-operate with all the regional governments’ bodies with authority in the field. The Work and Social Security Inspectorate ensures compliance with the provisions on the prevention of workplace risks[18].

The National Work Safety and Health Commission (CNSST), which consists of representatives of the central and regional administrations and of employer organisations and trade unions, advises the public administrations on prevention policies, and is the channel for official involvement in OSH.[10]

The work accident insurance is organised in a hybrid system of private non-profit insurance companies - Social Security Work Accident and Professional Sickness Provident Entities - (‘MATEPSS’) and a public body - Instituto Nacional de la Seguridad Social – INSS, and ISM – Instituto Social de la Marina, which guarantees workers’ compensation in companies that are not members of a ‘MATEPSS’. (See also: International comparison of occupations accident insurance systems)

OSH infrastructure scheme

Figure 1: The Spanish OSH system (scheme)

Figure 1: The Spanish OSH system (scheme)


Source: own draft, Brück 2012

National competent bodies

OSH authorities and Inspection services: Role and competencies

a) National authorities The national parliament is the legislative body for OSH, and the Ministry for Employment and Social Security (Ministerio de Empleo y Seguridad Social, MEYSS) is responsible for the national OSH policies, and supervision of social security and the MATEPPS[19].

The National Institute for Safety and Hygiene at Work (Instituto nacional de seguridad e higiene en el trabajo, INSHT) is the specialized scientific/technical body of the Spanish Government Administration for OSH matters. It was created in 1978 as an autonomous body of the Ministry of Employment and Social Security. It focuses on analysing, promoting, supporting and improving OSH issues[18]. Its main tasks are:

  • Technical assistance: providing specialized technical assistance to departments within the Administration, to stakeholders, and to OSH experts from public institutions or private companies. This activity represents approximately 30% of its global resources.
  • OSH research: Social research (i.e. working conditions surveys); epidemiological studies based on working accidents; field and laboratory research on chemicals, biological, physical agents and ergonomics. It also promotes and funds research through grants.
  • Training: An annual programme of activities.
  • Dissemination of information: several specialised publications are issued, e.g. on methods for measuring chemicals, or collections of preventive technical notes, OSH posters, leaflets, etc.
  • Guidelines and standardisation: Technical assistance in developing new OSH-related legislation, regulations and guidelines. Standardisation process: INSHT collaborates on technical committees for the formulation of UNE, EN and ISO standards.
  • Testing and certification of protective equipment and machinery.
  • Secretariat of the National Commision for Safety and Heath at Work: INSHT give technical support and general assistance to the National Commission for Safety and Health at Work.
  • National Reference Center for EU-OSHA and EU Institutions, ensuring the coordination and transmission of information on OSH, a national level.

The National Commission for Safety and Health at Work (Comisión nacional de seguridad y salud en el trabajo, CNSST) advises the MEYSS, discusses new developments, and guides the implementation and evaluation of the OSH strategy. Four groups of stakeholders are represented in the Commission, representing national authorities, the Autonomous Communities, employers and trade unions. The Commission votes and adopts proposals by majority - the national and regional authorities execute one common vote, while employer representatives and trade unions have one vote each. In this way the Commission can be considered as a tripartite body [10].

b) Labour inspection The National Labour Inspection Authority (Inspección de Trabajo y Seguridad Social, ITSS) is under the authority of and funded by the MEYSS. The labour inspectorate of Cataluña is an exceptional case, which is independent in function and status to the regional authorities. As the name already indicates, ITSS does not only supervise safety and health in the companies, it is also responsible for general labour relations and compliance with social security regulations (including checking for illegal employment). The inspectorate has specialists for OSH, employment, and social security[20].

Despite being a national authority, the labour inspectorate is organised in local branches: Each of the 50 provinces has teams of labour inspectors. They follow action plans that are set up by the governments of the Autonomous Communities. These action plans define priorities as well as inspection goals. In this way, the labour inspectors are able to work with high-risk sectors and companies. Together, the regional plans make up the so-called national programme, which needs the approval of the Sectoral Conference (conferencia sectoral). The labour inspectors also respond to incidents (accidents and diseases) in the workplace and may impose sanctions in the case of any breach of law. Homogenous inspection standards can be set by the MEYSS[20].

c) Jurisdiction The national state has exclusive responsibility for jurisdiction, but it is also executed at regional level. There are special social courts (‘tribunales’ or ‘juzgados de lo social’) whose remits are defined in Article 25 of the Organic Law on Jurisdiction (‘Ley órganica 6/1985 del poder judicial’)[21]. The remit includes issues of individual labour contracts, collective agreements, and social security. Tribunals of first instance are locally organised in the 50 provinces of Spain. The second and third instances are executed by superior tribunals of the Autonomous Communities and by the supreme court in Madrid (‘Salas sociales de los tribunales superiores’ and ‘Sala social del tribunal supremo’).

d) Other The Foundation for the Prevention of Occupational Risks (Fundación para la Prevención de Riesgos Laborales, FUNPRL) is a national body under tripartite governance that grants funding for prevention activities[22]. Representatives from the national government, from the Autonomous Communities, from trade unions and employer associations take decisions in the board (patronato) and the bureau (comisión delegada). The Foundation is funded in part by the Prevention and Rehabilitation Fund, drawn on management surpluses of the Social Security Work Accident and Professional Sickness Provident Entities (the ‘MATEPSS’). Applications for funding can be presented from national, regional, or sectoral stakeholders, as well as from the authorities or social partners. In 2009 the foundation granted 26.5 million euros for 230 different projects, and the calculated budget for 2010 was 25.6 million euros[22].

OSH services (external prevention services, technical control): Role and competencies

a) Prevention services The legal basis for the prevention services is the Royal Decree 39/1997 (Real decreto 39/1997 de 17 de enero, por el que se aprueba el Reglamento de los Servicios de Prevención). It broadly defines preventive actions to be taken in companies, how to fulfil legal duties, and the qualification and approval of preventive services. OSH services

In Spain there are three ways are to fulfil legal OSH and prevention obligations in companies: by internal services, by external services and by so-called collaborative prevention. Only companies with more than 500 workers (or 250 in certain sectors, see Art.14 and Annex I of Royal Decree 39/1997 [23]) are obliged to set up an internal prevention service. Others can opt for external services in accordance to Art.14c and Art.16 of Royal Decree 39/1997 [23].

By far the most popular solution is to delegate OSH issues to external prevention services (approx. 70% in 2003). Only 15% of companies, typically larger establishments, have their own occupational safety professionals (servicio de prevención propio). There are also ‘collaborative prevention services’ (servicios de prevención mancomunado), provided by associations of enterprises which pool financial resources and/or infrastructure. This solution may be chosen by enterprises that in the same location, sector, commercial area or region. There are a large number of external prevention services (servicios de prevención ajeno) which cooperate with companies to carry out risk prevention tasks (e.g. risk assessments). Usually they also act as a consultant for safety and health issues [4].

The Royal Decree 39/1997 tasks the Autonomous Communities with accreditation of prevention services (Article 24). To gain the accreditation, the prevention services (or companies) must dispose of specialists for occupational safety, medicine and hygiene, as well as for ergonomics and psycho-social issues. Article 31 of the law on prevention includes provisions for carrying out risk assessments, planning prevention measures, training and health monitoring [23][24]]. Insurance companies (MATEPSS, see below) can also offer own prevention services [23][24].

b) Other functions at enterprise level Article 35 of the Law 31/1995 introduces the function of the safety representative (delegado/-a de prevención), bringing it in line with the European Framework Directive. The position is obligatory in establishments with more than 5 employees [25] The number of safety representatives in the establishments depends on the number of workers: Fewer than 30 workers: one safety representative, who can also be the staff representative (‘delegado de personal’) 31-49 workers: 1 safety representative 50-100 workers: 2 safety representatives, 101-500 workers: 3 safety representatives, 501-1000 workers: 4 safety representatives, 1001-2000 workers: 5 safety representatives, 2001-3000 workers: 6 safety representatives, 3001-4000 workers: 7 safety representatives, More than 4000 workers: 8 safety representatives,

In Spain, safety representatives are elected by workers or their representatives. If there is no consensus in the election process, the staff representatives and worker’s committee choose the safety representative from their midst [26]. This is also the reason why the safety representative is frequently a member of a trade union, too. They are persons of trust for the workers, contact persons for the trade unions in the companies, and they have access to the management. This position enables them to take an active role in negotiating in the interests of workers OSH [27].

The safety representatives have various important OSH functions: They can inspect work places, check working conditions and interview workers, thereby supporting the work of safety experts (técnicos de prevención) and the labour inspectorate. They have the right to be informed about prevention policies, and they make up the safety committee (together with management delegates in companies with more than 50 employees)[16].

Compensation and insurance bodies

The Spanish worker compensation system can be characterised as a hybrid private and public system (see also: International comparison of occupations accident insurance systems). Occupational accident insurance and compensation and rehabilitation of occupational diseases is usually organised by Social Security Work Accident and Professional Sickness Provident Entities, the ‘MATEPSS’ (Mutuas de Accidentes de Trabajo y Enfermedades Profesionales de la Seguridad Social). The legal basis is the Royal decree 1/1994 on the General Law on Social Security (see: section VI, Art. 67 ff. [28])

‘MATEPSS’ are established as private associations of companies and need formal approval from the Ministry of Employment and Social Security (MEYSS) which is the supervision authority. The MATEPPS are obliged to cooperate with the authorities of the public social security system. Members of the associations are companies who can join voluntarily - otherwise workers’ compensation is guaranteed by the public insurance institute INSS (Instituto Nacional de Seguridad Social) [29]. Some sectors are excluded from the general regime, like mining, fisheries and agriculture [28]. In those cases the public system again guarantees the worker compensation. As of December 2011, some 1.52 million companies were members of a Mutua, representing nearly 13.86 million workers [30]. Employers must bear all costs of the legal requirements for the protection of employees. The insurance system is financed by employer contributions, and can vary between 0.81% and 16.2% of the payroll, depending on the risk class of the company (average contribution is roughly 2% of the payroll).[31]

At the moment there are 20 MATEPSS. They are members of the Association of Work Accident Insurance Companies (Associación de Mutuas de Accidentes de Trabajo, AMAT), which is a non-profit organisation, established in 1986. AMAT is the interest group for the insurance bodies. It represents common positions of the Mutuas and their member companies in negotiations within the social security system [32].

Other OSH bodies:

As already mentioned, national OSH is executed by the 17 Autonomous Communities. Each Autonomous Community has their own OSH specialists in Ministries and OSH institutes. In the Autonomous Cities of Ceuta and Melilla OSH authority is executed by the Federal Government.

This national and regional separation means close cooperation is required in many OSH areas, e.g. labour inspections, where the inspectors (national civil servants) follow regional action plans. There is also close cooperation on OSH strategy and information networking.

Various national and regional associations of OSH professionals negotiate on behalf of their members. A list can be found in chapter 5.

Education, training, and raising awareness

Legally required training for OSH specialists

In accordance with Royal Decree 39/1997, qualifications for OSH specialists depend on the prevention tasks necessary in the company. Chapter VI of the Decree defines three functional levels - basic, intermediate, and senior (Article 34 ff.). The qualification level corresponds to certain duties in the OSH organisation of the company, as defined in Art.35-37 of the Royal Decree: Duties corresponding to the basic level consist of promoting safe behaviour and workplace health and hygiene (signs, order, tidiness etc.). Intermediate tasks include carrying out risk assessments, making proposals and improvements based on the findings, training workers in OSH, as well as contributing to general prevention planning. The senior tasks are more general duties, like planning preventive action and efficiency control [23].

The basic qualification requires between 32 hours and 50 hours of training (depending to the sector the companies belongs to). The intermediate qualification requires extensive training of 220 hours, while OSH specialists responsible for senior duties need a university degree and an additional 600 hours training. Minimum training of each level contents are legally defined in Annexes IV-VI of Royal Decree 39/1997 [23].

There is no single qualification body for the different prevention specialists or services. Many education and training institutes offer such services. They carry out training activities for safety representatives and safety experts (técnicos de prevención de riesgos laborales, corresponding to the legally defined requirements of Royal Decree 39/97) [23].

Other vocational training

The Spanish National Plan for Education and Training in Occupational Risk Prevention which was approved at the end of 2010 and is based on the national OSH strategy includes, among others, the actions necessary to integrate risk prevention in professional training for employment, tertiary (university) education and basic and secondary education (until 16 years) [33].

Networks for raising awareness

The Spanish OSH Network (Red Española de Seguridad y Salud en el Trabajo, RedSST) is a nationwide network of information providers. It forms part of the European information network, which is coordinated by the European Agency for Safety and Health at Work (EU-OSHA). The national network is administrated by a nominated government representative or office, the so-called Focal Point. In Spain the administration has been delegated to the INSHT[34]. RedSST disseminates information nationwide, mainly via the internet. The members of the Spanish network are OSH authorities and other stakeholders from the national government and the Autonomous Communities, social partners, professional associations, and OSH bodies from universities. A complete list can be found at the website of the Spanish Focal Point (Punto Focal). [35].

The Internet Portal on Dangerous Situations at Work (Portal de Situaciones de Trabajo Peligrosas, STP) is a joint collaboration between the national government, represented by INSHT and the governments of twelve Autonomous Communities. STP collects and disseminates information and analyses for OSH stakeholders on general work accidents, dangerous substances, and workplace machinery [36].

Specialized technical, medical and scientific institutions

Research institutes

Several public authorities and various universities conduct OSH research or research with OSH impact. The following list is not exhausting.

The Governmental Observatory for Working Conditions (Observatorio Estatal de Condiciones de Trabajo, OECT) at the INSHT carries out technical studies on working conditions in Spain, and is also an information hub for OSH data and studies [37].

Various regional institutes conduct OSH studies, e.g. the Laboratory and Observatory for Occupational Diseases of Andalucía (Laboratorio Observatorio Andaluz de Enfermedades Profesionales, LADEP), which was founded in 2007 as a common initiative by the regional government (Junta de Andalucía), social partners (trade unions and employers) and the University of Huelva. LADEP mainly carries out epidemiological studies and compiles statistics on work-related illnesses. In this way it contributes to the prioritisation of OSH intervention [38].

The Trade Union Institute for Work, Environment and Health (Instituto Sindical de Trabajo, Ambiente y Salud, ISTAS) was founded in 1996 by the Spanish trade union Comisiones Obreras (CC.OO), which still supports its work. This non-profit, independent research and education institute was set up as a foundation. The work is supervised by the Board of Directors, which is responsible for strategic and financial planning. The majority of the members are nominated by the CC.OO trade union [39].

The Centre for Research in Occupational Health (Centro de Investigación en Salud Laboral, CISAL) at the University Pompeu Fabra in Barcelona was set up as Observatory for Occupational Health (Observatorio de Salud Laboral, OSL). It is a joint initiative by the university, the accident insurance association Unión de Mutuas, and ISTAS. It conducts research into health risks, vulnerable groups of workers, and OSH policies [40].

Founded in 1976, The Biomechanics Institute of Valencia (Instituto de Biomecánica de Valencia, IBV), is jointly run by the Polytechnic University of Valencia and the Valencian Institute for Small and Medium Industry (IMPIVA). It is a research facility that focuses on interfaces, studying the interaction between the human body and products, environments and services [41].

Standardisation agency

The Spanish Association Standardisation and Certification (Asociación Española de Normalización y Certificación, AENOR) was founded in 1986 as a private non-profit organisation [42]. AENOR is a member organisation in the International Standardisation Organisation (ISO) and the European Committee for Standardization (CEN).

AENOR offers certification for safety and health management systems in accordance with OHSAS 18001 standard. They also check legal compliance in companies (e.g. carrying out risk assessment, documentation etc.) [43].


List of institutions and organisations

OSH Authorities and institutes at national level

Ministerio de Empleo y Seguridad Social (MYESS), http://www.myess.es

Focal Point, http://osha.europa.eu/fop/spain/es

Labour Inspectorate, http://www.meyss.es/itss/web/index.html

Instituto Nacional de Salud e Higiene en el Trabajo (INSHT), http://www.insht.es

Comisión nacional de seguridad y salud en el trabajo (CNSST) http://www.insht.es/portal/site/Insht/menuitem.1f1a3bc79ab34c578c2e8884060961ca/?vgnextoid=28f29425a08e6110VgnVCM100000b80ca8c0RCRD&vgnextchannel=8d3dee784f992110VgnVCM100000dc0ca8c0RCRD

Observatorio estatal de condiciones de trabajo: http://www.oect.es

Fundación para la Prevención de Riesgos Laborales (FUNPRL): http://www.funprl.es

Portal de Situaciones de Trabajo Peligrosas http://stp.insht.es:86/stp/

OSH Authorities and institutes at regional level

Andalucía: Consejo Andaluz de Prevención de Riesgos Laborales (CAPRL) http://www.juntadeandalucia.es/empleo/www/seguridad-y-salud-laboral/mas-info-sobre-ssl/caprl

Instituto Andaluz para la Prevención de Riesgos Laborales (IAPRL), http://www.juntadeandalucia.es/organismos/empleo/consejeria/adscritos/iaprl.html

Aragón: Departamento de Economía y Empleo, http://w.aragon.es/ DepartamentosOrganismosPublicos/Departamentos/EconomiaEmpleo Instituto Aragonés de Seguridad y Salud Laboral (ISSLA) http://w.aragon.es/DepartamentosOrganismosPublicos/Organismos/InstitutoAragonesSeguridadSaludLaboral/AreasTematicas/ci.01_ISSLA.detalleDepartamento?channelSelected=0

Asturias: Gobierno del Principado de Asturias, http://www.asturias.es

Institutio Asturiano de Prevención de Riesgos Laborales (IAPRL), http://iaprl.asturias.es/es/

Canarias: Gobierno de Canarias, http://www.gobcan.es/

Instituto Canario de Seguridad Laboral (ICASEL) http://www.gobcan.es/educacion/webdgoie/scripts/default.asp?IdSitio=13&Cont=747

Cantabria: Consejería de Economía, Hacienda y Empleo, http://www.cantabria.es/web/consejeria-de-economia-y-hacienda

Instituto Cántabro de Seguridad y Salud en el Trabaja (ICASST), http://www.icasst.es/

Castilla La Mancha: La Consejería de Empleo y Economía, http://www.jccm.es/web/es/CastillaLaMancha/Gobierno_Regional/Empleo_Y_Economia/consejeria1193043189923pg/index.html

Castilla y León: Junta de Castilla y León, Portal Trabajo y Prevención de Riesgos Laborales / Instituto de Seguridad y Salud Laboral de Castilla y León y el Observatorio de Riesgos Laborales http://www.trabajoyprevencion.jcyl.es/

Cataluña / Catalunya: Departament d'Empresa i Ocupació / Inspecció de Treball (ITC) / Centres de Seguretat i Salut Laboral: http://www20.gencat.cat/portal/site/empresaiocupacio

Comunidad Valenciana / Comunitat Valenciana: Conselleria d'Educació, Formació i Educació, http://www.edu.gva.es/es/

Instituto Valenciano de Seguridad y Salud en el Trabajo (INVASSAT) http://www.invassat.gva.es/

Extremadura: La Consejería de Igualdad y Empleo, http://siprevex.juntaex.es/

Centro Extremeño de Seguridad y Salud Laboral (CESSLA), http://siprevex.juntaex.es/

Galicia: Consellería de Traballo e Benestar, http://traballoebenestar.xunta.es/

Instituto Galego de Seguridade e Saúde Laboral, en adiante (ISSGA) http://www.issga.es/index.php

Islas Baleares / Illes Balears: Dirección General de Trabajo Y Salud Laboral http://www.caib.es/govern/organigrama/area.do?lang=es&coduo=40

Instituto Balear de Salud Laboral (IBASAL), contact via government., Dirección General de Trabajo y Salud Laboral

La Rioja: Consejería de Industria, Innovación y Empleo, http://www.larioja.org/npRioja/default/defaultpage.jsp?idtab=451616 Instituto Riojano de Salud Laboral, http://www.larioja.org/npRioja/default/defaultpage.jsp?idtab=443459

Madrid: Consejería de Educación y Empleo, http://www.madrid.org/cs/Satellite?c=CM_Agrupador_FP&cid=1109266187254&idConsejeria=1109266187254&idListConsj=1109265444710&language=es&pagename=ComunidadMadrid%2FEstructura&pid=1109265444699

Instituto Regional de Seguridad y Salud en el Trabajo (IRSST) http://www.madrid.org/cs/Satellite?pagename=ComunidadMadrid/Estructura&language=es&idListConsj=1109265444710&idConsejeria=1109266187254&packedArgs=idOrganismo%3D1109266228581%26cid%3D1109266228581%26c%3DCM_Agrupador_FP&buscar=

Murcia: Consejería de Educación, Formación y Empleo http://www.carm.es/web/pagina?IDCONTENIDO=77&IDTIPO=140&RASTRO=c$m22660

Instituto de Seguridad y Salud Laboral de la Región de Murcia (ISSL), http://www.carm.es/web/pagina?IDCONTENIDO=160&IDTIPO=140&RASTRO=c$m120,128

Navarra: Departamento de Desarollo Rural, Industria, Empleo y medio Ambiente, http://www.navarra.es/home_es/Gobierno+de+Navarra/Organigrama/Los+departamentos/Desarrollo+Rural+Industria+Empleo+y+Medio+Ambiente/

Instituto Navarro de Salud Laboral (INSL), http://www.navarra.es/home_es/Gobierno+de+Navarra/Organigrama/Los+departamentos/Salud/Organigrama/Estructura+Organica/Instituto+Navarro+de+Salud+Laboral/portada+INSL.htm

País Vasco / Euskadi: Departamento de Empleo y Asuntos Sociales / Enplegu eta Gizarte Gaietako Saila http://www.gizartelan.ejgv.euskadi.net/r45-home/es

Instituto Vasco de Seguridad y Salud Laborales / Laneko Segurtasun eta Osasunerako Euskal Erakundearen (OSALAN) http://www.osalan.euskadi.net/s94-osalan/es/

Social security system and MATEPSS

Instituto Nacional de la Seguridad Social (INSS), http://www.seg-social.es

Associación de Mutuas de Accidentes de Trabajo (AMAT), http://www.amat.es

Activa Mutua 2008, http://www.activamutua.es

Asepeyo, http://www.asepeyo.es

CESMA, http://www.mutuacesma.com

Egarsat, http://www.egarsat.es

Fraternidad Muprespa, http://www.fraternidad.com

Fremap, http://www.fremap.es

IBERMUTUAMUR, http://www.ibermutuamur.es

MAZ, http://www.maz.es

MC MUTUAL, www.mc-mutual.com

Mutua Balear, http://www.mutuabalear.es

Mutua de Accidentes de Canarias (MAC), http://www.mac-mutua.org

Mutua Gallega, http://www.mutuagallega.es

Mutua Intercomarcal, http://www.mutua-intercomarcal.com

Mutua Montañesa, http://www.mutuamontanesa.es

Mutua Navarra, http://www.mutuanavarra.es

Mutua Universal, http://www.mutuauniversal.net

Mutualia, http://www.mutualia.es

Solimat, www.solimat.com

Umivale, http://umivale.es

Unión de Mutuas, http://www.uniondemutuas.es

Further OSH, OSH training and OSH research institutes (non-exhaustive)

Instituto Sindical de Trabajo, Ambiente y Salud (ISTAS), http://www.istas.net

Instituto de Biomecánica de Valencia (IBV), http://ibv.org/en/what-is-the-ibv

Laboratorio Observatorio Andaluz de Enfermedades Profesionales (LADEP), http://www.ladep.es

Universidad de Salamanca, postgrauduate studies in occupational risk management and university programme on prevention of occupational risks, http://riesgolaboral.usal.es/

Universidad de Valencia, Psicología de la seguridad, http://www.uv.es/seguridadlaboral

Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia (UNED), Unidad de Prevención de Riesgos Laborales, http://portal.uned.es/portal/page?_pageid=93,155820&_dad=portal&_schema=PORTAL

Universitat de Girona, Escola Politècnica Superior, Integrated programmes on occupational safety, http://www.udg.edu

Universitat de les Illes Balears, Catedra Fundación MAPFRE, Calificación de los técnicos de prevención, www.uib.es

Universitat Pompeu Fabra de Barcelona, Centro de Investigación en Salud Laboral (CISAL), http://www.upf.edu/cisal/cisal/presentacion.html

Social partners (non-exhaustive)

Confederación Española de Organizaciones Empresariales (CEOE), http://www.ceoe.es/ceoe/portal.portal.action

Confederación Española de la Pequeña y Mediana Empresa (CEPYME), http://www.cepyme.es Comisiones Obreras (CC.OO.), http://www.ccoo.es/csccoo/menu.do

Unión General de Trabajadores (UGT), http://www.ugt.es/index1.html

Professional associations (non-exhaustive)

Asociación Catalana de Técnicos en Prevención de Riesgos Laborales, http://www.actprl.com

Asociación de Empresas de Equipos de Protección Personal (ASEPAL), http://www.asepal.es

Asociación de Especialistas en Prevención y salud Laboral (AEPSAL), http://www.aepsal.com/

Asociación de Técnicos Superiores de Prevención de Riesgos Laborales de la Rioja (APRILA), http://www.aprila.org/

Asociación Española de los Servicios Organizados para el Socorro ante Emergencias, http://www.sos-emergencias.es

Federación de Servicios de Prevención Ajenos (ASPA), http://www.aspaprevencion.com Sociedad Balear de Medicina del Trabajo, http://sbmt.comib.com

Sociedad Castellana de Medicina y Seguridad en el Trabajo, www.scmst.es

Sociedad Española de Neurología, Grupo de Estudio de la Neurología del Trabajo, http://neurologiadeltrabajo.sen.es


References

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Links for further reading

Colina Robledo M., La Prevención de Riesgos Laborales y la Dimensión Europea de la Seguridad y Salud en el Trabajo. In: Alcór de mgo – Revista Científico-Técnica de Seguridad y Saluda Laborales, no.11, 2008, pp. 57-62. Available at: http://www.mgo-e.com/Descargas/alcor11.pdf

González Biedma E., Las responsabilidades de los técnicos de prevención. Madrid 1999. Available at: http://www.insht.es/InshtWeb/Contenidos/Documentacion/TextosOnline/Rev_INSHT/1999/3/seccionJurTextCompl.pdf

Gonzalo González B., La Renovación de las Políticas Sobre Salud y Seguridad en el Trabajo: Estrategias y Contenido de los Programas Español y Eurocomunitario para el Periodo 2007-2012. In: Alcór de mgo – Revista Científico-Técnica de Seguridad y Saluda Laborales, no. 11, 2008, pp. 4-7. Available at: http://www.mgo-e.com/Descargas/alcor11.pdf

ILO – International Labour Organisation, Natlex, Retrieved on 21. September 2012, from http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/country_profiles.home

INSHT – Instituto Nacional de Segruidad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Análises de la mortalidad por accidente de trabajo. Madrid 2011. Available at: http://www.oect.es/Observatorio/Contenidos/InformesPropios/Desarrollados/Ficheros/mortalidad2009.pdf

INSHT – Instituto Nacional de Segruidad e Higiene en el Trabajo, NTP 471: La vigilancia de la salud en la normativa de prevención de riesgos laborales. Madrid undated. Available at: http://www.insht.es/InshtWeb/Contenidos/Documentacion/FichasTecnicas/NTP/Ficheros/401a500/ntp_471.pdf

Wikipedia, Derecho Laboral de España. Retrieved on 21. September 2012, from http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Derecho_laboral_en_Espa%C3%B1a

Wikipedia, Mutuas de Accidentes de Trabajo y Enfermedades Profesionales. Retrieved on 21. September 2012, from http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mutuas_de_Accidentes_de_Trabajo_y_Enfermedades_Profesionales

Wikipedia, Seguridad Social de España. Retrieved on 21. Sept 2012, from http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seguridad_Social_de_Espa%C3%B1a