Overview of policies, strategies and programmes in relation to the occupational health and safety of older workers - Finland
Initiatives from government/ government-affiliated organisations
- Programmes and initiatives aiming to enhance work ability and to lengthen careers started already in the early 1990’s. The early programmes implemented at national level are listed below:
- National Productivity Programme (1993–2003)
- National Workplace Development Programme TYKE (1996–99), Workplace Development Programme TYKE (1999–2003) and Workplace Development Programme TYKES (2004–10)
- Well-Being at Work Programme (2000–03)
- National Programme for Ageing Workers (1998–2002)
- Veto Programme (2003–07)
- KESTO programme (2004–07)
- Noste Programme (2003–09)
- European Social Fund programmes (1995–)
- Pension reform (2005-)
OSH within health and social policies
In 2010, the Ministry for Social Affairs and Health published a strategy entitled “A Socially Sustainable Finland for 2020”. The strategy highlights four main targets, including that: health and well-being should be included in all decision-making; working careers should be lengthened by increased workplace well-being; different aspects of life should be better balanced; and social security funding should be made more sustainable. In order to achieve these targets, the Ministry has, in its action plans for 2012 as well as 2013, committed to continue to develop proposals for legislative change and work on relevant topic specific assessments and programmes. The policies presented in this document, which have been further described in the publication “Policies for the work environment and well-being at work until 2020”, specify the ministerial strategy.
The National Development Programme for Social Welfare and Health care (Kaste) is a strategic steering tool that is used to manage and reform social and health policy. The Kaste programme is reformulated every four years, and currently runs from 2012 until 2015. It implements the strategy of the Ministry of Social Affairs and Health and defines the key social and health policy targets, priority action areas for development activities and monitoring as well as essential legislation projects, guidelines and recommendations that enhance the realisation of the programme.
In 2011, the Ministry of Social Affairs and Health also issued the National Action Plan for Finland called “Every Age is the Right Age”, which was prepared for the European theme year 2012 on active ageing and intergenerational solidarity. The main aims of the national action plan was to increase understanding of the importance to overall well-being of intergenerational cooperation, to promote the dissemination of knowledge and methods to public and private bodies on how to enhance such cooperation and to generate positive attitudes towards such cooperation. Responsibility for the implementation of the actions during that theme year rested with the Finnish Institute for Occupational Health (FIOH).
In 2011, the Ministry for Education and Culture together with the Ministry of Social Affairs and Health published a “The National Policy Programme for Older People’s Physical Activity”. The aim of the programme is to enhance the opportunities available for older people to do exercise thus promoting health and participation in society. The target group for the programme is people who are 60+ and do not exercise enough. The aim was to implement the programme at all levels, including national, regional and local. Funding is arranged through the Finnish Slot Machine Association- RAY. The programme has the intention to work in conjunction with a previously established similar programme called “Power into Old Age” (2005-2014) and proposed that the already established national exercise forum for older people be held on a regular basis.
In 2011, the National Institute for Health and Welfare (THL, Terveyden ja hyvinvoinnin laitos) issued a strategy for 2011-2020 entitled “Health brings welfare - 2020 - Welfare brings health”. The THL has a legislative mandate to promote the health and well-being of the population, develop social and healthcare services and prevent illness and social problems. The THL operates under the direction of the Ministry for Social Affairs and Health. The strategy for 2011-2020 sets out six main aims for the coming years. The first is to enhance the health, capabilities and well-being of the population. This is to be achieved by preventing so-called “national diseases” i.e. illnesses that are prevalent in the Finnish population as well as strengthening overall well-being. The strategy specifically mentions that achieving this aim will work towards lengthening working careers.
OSH within employment policies
In spring 2012, the Ministry of Employment and the Economy published the “National Working Life Development Strategy to 2020”. The Strategy was prepared through a broad tripartite collaboration led by the Ministry of Employment and the Economy, with the participation of the Ministry of Social affairs and health, the Ministry of Education and culture, the social partners and other stakeholders. The overarching aim of the strategy is to make working life in Finland the best in Europe by 2020 by way of creating well-functioning, profitable workplaces that generate new employment. The core elements of the strategy involve deepening trust and cooperation, reinforcing innovation and productivity, ensuring a skilled workforce and ensuring the health and well-being of people and workplace communities. The strategy was drawn up as a joint effort between representatives from a variety of ministries and labour confederations. The national strategy issued in 2012 is being implemented according to an implementation plan which includes the launching of the following ongoing national level initiatives and networks:
- The Liideri- Business, Productivity and Joy at Work programme (Liideri - Liiketoimintaa, tuottavuutta ja työniloa) offers public and private sector companies, aiming to grow their business by way of innovating new methods of working and new models of management, an opportunity to apply for government funding. The programme is run by TEKES, an organisation that is entrusted to allocate government funds to vetted projects with the aim of supporting the development of industry, commerce and services. The Liideri-programme specifically supports two key purposes: 1) to promote employee participation in the renewal of products, services and their generation and 2) encouraging new methods of working (e.g. active age management at work which involves making work arrangements and the organisation fit each individual employee better) and how to manage those methods. The programme is continuously open to funding applications. It also arranges targeted thematic research calls for method development and integration of research and development. The programme promotes the development of networks and peer support, for example, through action groups, morning coffee events/ workshops and as well as networking possibilities through social media such as their own “InnoTyö”. The programme will run between 2012-2018.
- The Forum for Well-being at Work (Työhyvinvointifoorumi) is a collective group of stakeholders working together to support projects and programmes for promoting cooperation and sharing of good practices between companies, increasing the availability and visibility of networks and services for well-being at work, awarding successful well-being at work practices and disseminating information on well-being at work. The Minister of Social Affairs and Health directs the Forum for Well-being at Work. The FIOH organizes the activities in practice and ensures that the tasks defined in the action plan are carried out. The Forum has its own website where information on the programme, its aims and tasks and projects are described. It organizes two national workshops (VAPA) annually together with various actors such as labour market organizations, entrepreneur organizations, other networks for promoting well-being at work, ministries and political decision-makers and providers of services related to well-being at work and occupational health care. The workshops aim to define every actor's role in well-being at work, to create a uniform direction, and to find solutions for raising the level of well-being at work activities. One way to raise the level of well-being at work is to implement good age management practices which take account of individual needs. The Forum also works to define operating models to define the level of workplace well-being and ways to promote it. Information, models, methods and tools that are generated are shared on the Forum website.
- The Leadership Development Network (Johtamisverkosto) is a collective group of actors working together to support projects and programmes for promoting good management and supervisory work practices as well as their implementation, create quality standards for good management in the public sector and promote their implementation, promote and strengthen the principles of age management in everyday management practices and to develop the quality of and equal access to management training in different employer sectors throughout Finland together with bodies organizing management training. The Network is open to all interested organisations. The Leadership Development Network is directed by the Minister of Social Affairs and Health. The actual coordination of tasks is carried out by the FIOH. The Network organizes and is involved with many projects and events throughout Finland related to developing new leadership models that will promote improved well-being at work. The website for the network website includes information on all the projects that are supported and the tools that are available.
In 2013, a working group composed of representatives from the Ministry of Social Affairs and Health and the National Institute for Health and Welfare (THL, Terveyden ja hyvinvoinnin laitos) published a working paper entitled “A Good Finland for All Age Groups”. The working paper presents over 40 suggestions for achieving 9 main aims. These aims include, for example, the need to make the pension system more sustainable and to enhance opportunities for more flexible work arrangements in order to accommodate employees’ needs for caring for children as well as older relatives.
In 2010, the Finnish Institute for Occupational Health (FIOH) published a strategy for 2011-2015 entitled “Well-being from Work”. The FIOH has a legislative mandate to promote occupational health and safety in terms of carrying out research, providing training and offering related services. The FIOH operates under the direction of the Ministry of Social Affairs and Health. The strategy for 2011-2015 presents four main aims. These are to help create a) safe and interesting jobs b) an encouraging organization c) an occupational health care system that has an impact and d) a flourishing worker. According to the strategy, achieving these aims will lead to increased participation in working life at all stages of life.
The FIOH has developed a number of tools and programmes as part of the implementation measures developed to push forward its strategy as part of the government policy on lengthening working careers:
- “Age Power to Work” (Ikävoimaa työhön) – is a training programme developed by FIOH for supporting better age management at workplaces. The programme is designed to be tailored to individual companies and their needs. The aim is to support companies in maximising the resources and potential of all aged staff by enabling them to work towards keeping everyone motivated and happy at work. The training involves developing an understanding of age-related challenges and opportunities at workplaces and of different practical approaches.
- “Age-key (IKÄ-avain) – an initial assessment for developing age management at workplaces” is a tool in the form of a questionnaire which can be presented to staff for feedback. The aim of the tool is to gain an understanding of how employees view age management and its implementation at the workplace, identify the methods that could be developed at the workplace to improve age management and to collect all the ideas from staff related to how best to utilise the resources of differently aged workers. The assessment provides a baseline on which to make recommendations for new strategies and actions and involves all the interested parties.
- “CAREER PIONEER (TYÖURAN UURTAJA) ® - a tool for enhancing workplace well-being” is a tool developed and marketed by FIOH for use by human resources professionals in companies as well as for occupational health care professionals. The tool is intended to be used at workplaces by persons who have been trained to use it. The tool aims to support companies in identifying their existing level of well-being and ways to increase it by improving careers management of employees in different stages of life. FIOH can implement the method at any workplace using their own trained leaders or FIOH can train company personnel to become internal leaders.
- “Duunitalkoot” is a website containing guidance, best practice examples and self-assessment and measurement tools related to workplace well-being. The aim of the website is to help workplaces prepare for the main challenges that workplaces are going to increasingly face in the future. These are 1) the ageing workforce, 2) the retention of skills in a rapidly changing working climate, 3) effective management of workplaces with employees from multicultural backgrounds and 4) maintaining the work ability of employees. The website and its tools were developed as part of the KESTO-programme (2004-2007) launched by the FIOH and funded by the Ministry of Social Affairs and Health and the Finnish Work Environment Fund.
From 2009 to 2012, the Ministry of Social Affairs and Health funded the PUNK programme, with support from the European Social Fund (ESF). The programme was implemented by a grouping of organisations including the Rehabilitation Foundation, the Tampere University, the Research and training centre Synergos and the Kiipula Foundation (as well as numerous occupational health care providers). It aimed at improving well-being and retention of work ability in small companies. Under the framework of PUNK, the web-based tool “Työkyvyntuki.fi” was developed. The tool allows registered users to tailor-make a handbook for their own company to support work intended to improve and retain employee’s work ability.
In terms of developing workplace well-being and promoting longer careers in state-run organisations located across Finland, the State Treasury has adopted and administers the ‘Kaiku’ services. These services include consultation services as well as funding for projects aimed at developing well-being and age management in state-run organisations. The ‘Kaiku’ website also provides guidance and good practice examples.
The Finnish Centre for Pensions (Keva) adopted and administers the ‘Kaari’ services. Kaari services are aimed at developing workplace well-being and promoting longer careers for those working in the municipal sector and parts of the church organisation. The ‘Kaari’ website also provides guidance and good practice examples.
Strongly linked to the national Forum for Well-being at Work and the Leadership Development Network is the Workplace Well-being Network (Tyhy-verkosto) which aims to reach out to all the regions of Finland. Currently, activities are administered from nine regions: Etelä-Savo (Mikkeli), Satakunta (Pori), Lappi (Rovaniemi), Pohjanmaa (Kokkola), Pohjois-Karjala (Joensuu), Etelä-Pohjanmaa (Seinäjoki), Pohjois-Savo (Kuopio), Pirkanmaa (Tampere) and Uusimaa (Helsinki). The Network is open to all actors interested in developing workplace well-being and prepared to commit to the principles of the network. The FIOH organizes the activities and acts as the link between the regions and national entities. A regional contact person is appointed to be in charge of planning and implementing themed activities in the region. The Network also functions as the regional link to the European Network for Workplace Health Promotion. The Network organises regional seminars and workshops related to workplace well-being themes and participates in the national workshops, seminars, exhibitions etc. organised by the various national entities including, for example, the Forum for Well-being at Work. One of the main themes for the 2013 activities organised by the region of South-Savo has been age management at workplaces and understanding the needs of differently aged employees.
At the local level, in response to government policy on ageing and the requirement set out in Act 980/2012 on Supporting the Older Population, municipalities have been working on strategies to implement public health activities in relation to the older population (active ageing). In implementing the strategies for ageing, municipalities have launched a wide variety of services aimed at promoting the health and well-being of persons of all ages and especially the ageing. Such services include, for example, regular checks by medical professionals, the organisation of community activities, providing access to sports facilities at heavily reduced rates or free of charge and providing opportunities to carry out voluntary work or paid service work, for example, as child minders, gardeners and domestic handymen etc. As an example, the strategy for the city of Espoo includes a prioritisation in the coming years on provision of services aimed at promoting health and well-being and preventing illness at all stages of life.
In 2007, the Round Table for Productivity was established as a high level entity within the labour market confederations with the specific aim to improve productivity, quality of working life and cooperation and to disseminate this information on a national level. One of the actions to come out of the round table has been the creation of an expert group which has been tasked with monitoring and promoting research in the topic area, creating practical models that are then implemented at workplaces, planning training and publications as well as web-based services. The expert group is composed of seven individuals representing both employees and employers.
In 2009, the Round Table launched the PALJE-programme<refInformation about the PALJE-programme on the website of the Finnish Work Environment Fund (Työsuojelurahasto): http://www.tsr.fi/tutkimustietoa/tata-tutkitaan/hanke?h=109078 (Accessed December 2014)</ref>. The programme was built on three main themes- a) future personnel management b) developing the quality of working life and c) new opportunities arising from cooperation- immaterial capital. Under each of these three themes, a total of 18 research projects were launched. Half of them were funded by TEKES and the other half by the Finnish Work Environment Fund (Työsuojelurahasto).
In 2008, the labour market confederations launched a programme entitled “Improving Working Life – TYKES”. The programme had the aim of financially supporting Finnish companies who wished to develop new ways to improve working conditions. In 2010, a report was published on the results of one of the subprogrammes entitled “Senior citizens – a resource for the workforce” that had the aim of helping ageing workers to remain in working life as part-time workers in their retirement. The report on the programme entitled “Seniors Flexibility at Work” provides examples from the private sector (Finnish Entrepreneurs Association and Gasum Oy) and public sector (City of Mikkeli) on how retired people have been successfully integrated into work as part time employees.
In 2011 and 2012, the labour market confederations adopted a Policy Framework Agreement (Työurasopimus) stating that in order to maintain the Finnish welfare state, actions need to be taken to lengthen careers and gain a higher percentage of employment overall. The basis for the policy was the agreement reached already in 2009 that the target for expected retirement age should be increased from 60,5 (average in 2011) to at least 62,4 by 2025. Several proposals and initiatives have been made in line with this policy, some of which have moved forward to the legislative stage or otherwise implemented. Below is a description of implemented initiatives:
- The guide “Towards Longer Careers – a Guide to Preparing an Age Programme for Workplaces” (Työkaarimallilla kohti pidempiä työuria –opas ikäohjelman laatimiseen), published in May 2013, provides a description of different elements that can be included in whole or in part in a workplace age programme. Preparing a workplace age programme is not mandatory but workplaces are increasingly encouraged to take up such a programme in order to be able to better define and manage the varying needs of differently aged employees. The main elements described in the guidance include the following: a) age management b) career planning c) training and qualifications d) working time e) work design f) health surveillance g) promoting healthy life styles and overall life management. These elements are suggested to be considered in the context of the specific conditions at a particular workplace and, where possible, incorporated into existing programmes such as mandatory health and safety action plans, mandatory occupational health care action plans, equality programmes, training programmes etc. The guidance includes examples of workplace age programmes as implemented in both the private sector (Nordkalk, Abloy, Berner, Saarioinen, Oras) and public sector (City of Helsinki).
- As part of the model for developing knowhow, four amending Acts and two new Acts were adopted in December 2013 related to Financially Supported Occupational Training. Despite relatively concrete proposals with a set number of training days and options to swap them in case of aged workers, the adopted Acts simply require employers with 20 or more employees to prepare training plans for the staff as a whole. These plans must specifically consider the needs of ageing employees as well as employees who are at risk of becoming unemployed due to incapacity or structural change within the organization. Where plans are written, the employers have the opportunity to gain tax rebates or similar financial support. The new Acts do lay down the fundamental principles behind the model for developing knowhow and emphasize the need to focus on maintaining and developing qualifications that may be needed in a changing working climate including the qualifications of young employees as well as ageing employees. The Acts entered into force from the start of 2014.
The Centre for Occupational Safety (TTK, Työturvallisuuskeskus), the research institute of the social partners in Finland, has developed a number of tools as part of the implementation measures developed to push forward government policy on lengthening working careers:
- The Well-being at Work Card (Työhyvinvointikortti) is a card gained after completing an 8h training course and passing an exam on workplace well-being. The aim of the training is to start up development initiatives at workplaces, enhance cooperation and the understanding of what well-being means and to help develop roles and responsibilities at the workplace to take initiatives forward. The Well-being at Work Card concept follows the Occupational Safety Card concept which was an earlier industry-led initiative aiming to become a de facto requirement on industrial sites thus ensuring that all workers including contractors have at least a baseline understanding of safety requirements in an industrial setting. The training course content and training course providers are controlled and registered by the Centre for Occupational Safety which also audits training providers to ensure an appropriate standard and quality is maintained. To date there over 6000 Well-being at Work cards have been issued.
- “sykettätyöhön.fi” is a free of charge web forum for information exchange on good practices for well-being and age management in companies of all sectors. The forum has been established and is administered by the Centre for Occupational Safety. The site also includes use of a personalised tool to help manage projects at workplaces. Registered users have access to the tool as well as a wealth of further information to promote better age management and general well-being at work. A company that is prominently spreading their good practice example on the website is Abloy Oy. Others that have provided good practice examples of good age management include Nakkila Goup, Saarioinen Oy, Sampo Pankki Oyj, Pensions company Varma and the city of Naantali.
- “Steps to Workplace Well-being” (Työhyvinvoinnin portaat) is a handbook developed to help individuals and companies to improve their workplace well-being. The initial step involves a preliminary assessment, followed by identification of existing challenges and strengths and finally the setting down of targets and an action plan. The concept is based on the fundamental needs of people which should all be in balance.
The Federation of Finnish Technology Industries (Teknologiateollisuus) has developed a programme called “Good Work – Longer Career” (Hyvä työ – pidempi työura) (2010-2015) on the basis of a collective agreement between the Federation of Finnish Technology Industries, the Metalworkers' Union, the Federation of Professional and Managerial Staff YTN, the Trade Union Pro and Union of Professional Engineers in Finland. In 2011, during the pilot phase of the project, 19 technology companies participated. Between 2012-2013, the programme aimed to include a further 100 companies. The programme, which is part of the broader Working Life 2020 Programme, aims at creating tools to improve age management at work. The tools developed as part of the programme include the following:
- “Yksilö-tutka” / “Individual-radar”: The Individual-radar is a questionnaire for staff (based on Professor Juhani Ilmarinen’s work ability house model), which aims to establish the current level of well-being at the workplace and results in a “well-being index”, called THI (työhyvinvointi indeksi).
- “Työpaikka-tutka” / “Workplace-radar”: The Workplace-radar is a tool to identify which priority areas require most immediate improvement actions.
- A guide to design an age plan called “Longer careers with the Job Life Cycle Model”: the guide provides information to help organisations (industry, private companies, municipalities and government agencies) to prepare an age plan that takes into account all age groups (not only older workers). It focuses on seven areas: age management; career-planning and extending careers; managing competence and professional skills; flexible working hours; re-defining a job; health assessment at the workplace; and promoting healthy habits and life management.
The Central Organisation of Finnish Trade Unions (SAK, Suomen Ammattiliittojen Keskusjärjestö) is pushing to include the implementation of age management programmes at workplaces into the industry sector specific collective labour agreements (työehtosopimukset) currently being negotiated between employee and employer confederations. The basis for the initiative comes from results of a study carried out by SAK in September 2013 on the implementation and the perceived need for the implementation of age management programmes at workplaces. The study was based on a questionnaire and received responses from over 1000 company trade union representatives and occupational health and safety representatives. According to the study, 69% of respondents and 74% of respondents from the transport sector felt that an age management programme should be established at their workplace. The study indicated that age management programmes have currently being implemented most in organisations employing over 250 persons (17%) and the public sector (13%). According to the study, only 8% of employees currently fall under such a programme.
Initiatives from other organisations
The Varma Mutual Pension Insurance Company, which is the largest earnings-related pension insurer and private investor in Finland, produced in 2006 “A Good Age” (Hyvä Ikä), a guidance document on how to create and implement an age management programme at workplaces. The guidance document introduces the different methods available to build such a programme and the elements that need to be considered to make it successful. The guidance also introduces the rehabilitation programmes that are offered by Varma to support occupational health care providers.
In 2011, Varma has also developed the “Good Work Ability Model” (Hyvä työkyky – Työkyvyn tukemisen malli) and has published a guide to help companies implement it. The model involves identifying work ability related problems at an early stage, finding solutions to those problems, having clear procedures for recording and monitoring absenteeism, showing how to take active measures to reduce unnecessary absenteeism and supporting the return to work of employees who have been on prolonged sick leave. The occupational health care services play an important role in all of these areas.
Opteam Nestor is a service provided by the private human resources company Opteam. The service includes hiring out retired professionals either to the companies they used to work for or to other companies. Opteam Nestor also offers to set up an employment bank model within a given company to allow them to develop a system to easily make use of retired staff when the need arises.
- Ministry of Social Affairs and Health, A Socially Sustainable Finland for 2020 (Sosiaalisesti kestävä Suomi 2020), 2010. Available at: http://www.stm.fi/c/document_library/get_file?folderId=39503&name=DLFE-14357.pdf (Accessed December 2014)
- Ministry of Social Affairs and Health, Policies for the work environment and well-being at work until 2020 (Työympäristön ja työhyvinvoinnin linjaukset vuoteen 2020), 2011. Available at: http://www.stm.fi/julkaisut/nayta/-/_julkaisu/1566807 (Accessed December 2014)
- Ministry of Social Affairs and Health, National Development Programme for Social Welfare and Health Care (Kaste) 2012-2015 (Sosiaali- ja terveydenhuollon kansallinen kehittämisohjelma (Kaste) 2012-2015), 2012. Available at: http://www.stm.fi/en/strategies_and_programmes/kaste (Accessed December 2014)
- Ministry of Social Affairs and Health, Every Age is the Right Age! (Aina on oikea ikä!), 2011. Available at: http://www.stm.fi/c/document_library/get_file?folderId=3320152&name=DLFE-17206.pdf (Accessed December 2014)
- Ministry for Education and Culture, The National Policy Programme for Older People’s Physical Activity (Ikäihmisten liikunnan kansallinen toimenpideohjelma), 2011. Available at (in English): http://www.minedu.fi/export/sites/default/OPM/Julkaisut/2012/liitteet/OKM17.pdf?lang=fi (Accessed December 2014)
- “Power into Old Age” (2005-2014. Available at: http://www.voimaavanhuuteen.fi/fi/etusivu/ (Accessed December 2014))
- National Institute for Welfare and Health, Health brings welfare - 2020 - Welfare brings health (Terveydestä hyvinvointia - 2020 - hyvinvoinnista terveyttä), 2011. Available (in English) at: http://www.thl.fi/documents/189940/1496849/health_brings_welfare_strategy.pdf/f2e9dbf1-6cad-4596-991f-81947f6e1623 (Accessed December 2014)
- Ministry of Employment and the Economy, National Working Life Development Strategy to 2020 (Työelämän kehittämisstrategia vuoteen 2020), 2012. Available at: http://www.tem.fi/files/33484/TEMtyoelaman_kehittamisstrategia2020_A4_fi.pdf ((Accessed December 2014)
- TEKES website for the Liideri-programme: http://www.tekes.fi/ohjelmat-ja-palvelut/ohjelmat-ja-verkostot/liideri/palvelut/ (Accessed December 2014)
- The Forum for Well-being at Work website: http://www.ttl.fi/partner/thf/Sivut/default.aspx (Accessed December 2014)
- The Leadership Development Network website: http://www.ttl.fi/partner/johtamisverkosto/Sivut/default.aspx (Accessed December 2014)
- Ministry of Social Affairs and Health, A Good Finland for All Age Groups (Kaikenikäisille Hyvä Suomi), 2013. Available at: http://www.julkari.fi/bitstream/handle/10024/110167/URN_ISBN_978-952-245-929-9.pdf?sequence=1 (Accessed December 2014)
- Finnish Institute for Occupational Health, Well-being from Work (Hyvinvointia työstä), 2010. Available at: http://www.ttl.fi/fi/tyoterveyslaitos/strategia_arvot_visio/Documents/Strategia_2011_2015.pdf (Accessed December 2014)
- The training programme is no longer advertised on the FIOH website. Information available at: http://www.videonet.fi/stm/20120912/2/thiel.pdf (Accessed December 2014)
- The brochure on the assessment method: http://www.ttl.fi/fi/asiantuntijapalvelut/tyoura/ika-avain/Documents/TTL_AR_IKA_avain_092012.pdf (Accessed December 2014)
- A brochure describing the tool: http://www.ttl.fi/fi/asiantuntijapalvelut/tyoura/Tyouran_uurtaja/Documents/TTL_AR_TyouranUURTAJA_032013.pdf (Accessed December 2014)
- The ‘Duunitalkoot’ website can be accessed at: http://www.ttl.fi/duunitalkoot/default.html (Accessed December 2014)
- The web-based tool can be accessed at: https://www.tyokyvyntuki.fi/ (Accessed December 2014)
- ‘Kaiku’ website: http://www.valtiokonttori.fi/fi-FI/Virastoille_ja_laitoksille/Henkilostohallintoa_ja_johtamista_tukevat_palvelut/Kaikutyoelamapalvelut (Accessed December 2014)
- ‘Kaari’ website: http://www.keva.fi/fi/tyossa_jatkaminen/Sivut/Default.aspx (Accessed December 2014)
- The website of the Network is accessible here: www.ttl.fi/tyhyverkosto (Accessed December 2014)
- Information on “The Round Table for Productivity“ (Tuottavuuden Pyöreä Pöytä) available at: http://www.tuottavuustyo.fi/luottamus_ja_yhteistyo/tuottavuuden_pyorea_poyta (Accessed December 2014)
- Auvinen J., Kettunen H., Seniors Flexibility at Work - TYKES (Seniorit joustavasti työssä - TYKES), 2010. Available at: http://www.tekes.fi/Julkaisut/tekes_72_356159_web.pdf ((Accessed December 2014)
- Labour market confederations, Policy Framework Agreement of the Labour Market Confederations (Työmarkkinakeskusjärjestöjen Työurasopimus), 2012. Available at: http://d1aq5jbsszuf44.cloudfront.net/materials/tyourasopimus20121_5fb1.pdf (Accessed December 2014)
- Andersson, B., et al., Towards Longer Careers – a Guide to Preparing an Age Programme for Workplaces” (Työkaarimallilla kohti pidempiä työuria –opas ikäohjelman laatimiseen), 2013. Available at: http://www.ttk.fi/files/3269/Tyokaarimallilla_kohti_pidempia_tyouria_d8eb.pdf (Accessed December 2014)
- The proposed regulatory changes available at: http://www.eduskunta.fi/triphome/bin/vex3000.sh?TUNNISTE=HE+99/2013 (Accessed December 2014)
- More information can be found on the website of TTK: http://www.työhyvinvointikortti.fi/ (Accessed December 2014)
- The website can be accessed at: http://sykettatyohon.fi/fi (Accessed December 2014)
- TTK, Steps to Workplace Well-being (Työhyvinvoinnin portaat), 2009. Available at: http://www.ttk.fi/files/704/Tyohyvinvoinnin_portaat_tyokirja.pdf (Accessed December 2014)
- The website of the programme is accessible at: http://www.tyohyvinvointi.info/ (Accessed December 2014)
- The guide is available in English at: http://www.akava.fi/files/13079/Job_Life_Cycle_Model.pdf (Accessed May 2015)
- SAK, Ikäohjelmat SAK:laisilla työpaikoilla (study on the implementation and perceived need for implementation of age management programmes at workplaces), 2013. Available at: http://www.sak.fi/aineistot/tutkimukset/luottamushenkilopaneeli/ikaohjelmat-saklaisilla-tyopaikoilla-2013-09-26 (Accessed December 2014)
- Varma, A Good Age – guidance (Hyvä ikä – opas), 2006. Available at: https://www.varma.fi/fi/PdfDocuments/Anonymous/Julkaisut/tyohyvinvointi/HyvaIkaOpas.pdf (Accessed December 2014)
- Varma, Good Work Ability Model (Hyvä työkyky – Työkyvyn tukemisen malli), 2011. Available at: https://www.varma.fi/fi/PdfDocuments/Anonymous/Julkaisut/tyohyvinvointi/HyvaTyokykyMalli.PDF (Accessed December 2014)
- More information on Opteam Nestor on the Opteam website (in English): http://www.opteam.fi/en/yritykselle/henkilostovuokraus/ (Accessed December 2014)