Worker participation - Greece

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Evi Georgiadou, Hellenic Institute for Occupational Health & Safety (ELINYAE)

Introduction

Worker participation concerns involvement in decision-making processes relating to political, economic and social (labour-related) matters. Worker participation in Greece is achieved through:

  • consultative processes as stipulated by legislation
  • work councils
  • trade unions
  • direct involvement in the administration board, which especially applies to state own companies.

Worker participation is also foreseen through Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) legislation at national, regional, branch and company levels. This article focuses on the participation of workers in Greece on OSH-related matters.

Regulatory framework for worker participation

At the international level, regulatory provisions on worker participation are contained in Article 19 of ILO Convention C-155. [1] Article 12 of the ILO Recommendation R-164 [2]describes additional specific rights and possibilities for employees and their representatives with respect to worker participation. Recommendation R-129 contains general recommendations on communication issues between employers and workers.[3]

Information and consultation

The European Directive 2002/14/EC [4] establishes a general legal framework for informing and consulting employees in the European Community. The directive makes it a requirement for employers to inform and consult employees via the workers’ representatives in the company, in three specific areas:

  • the recent and probable development of the company’s activities and economic situation;
  • the condition, structure and probable development of employment and any anticipatory measures envisaged;
  • decisions likely to lead to substantial changes in work organisation or in contractual relations.

The Directive was transposed into Greek law by the Presidential Decree 240/2006.[5] Related studies revealed that the statutory framework for workers consultation has not been effectively implemented in Greece. [6]

Work Councils – Trade Unions

Law 1767/1988 [7]establishes the general framework for the function of Work Councils. Work Councils are consultative bodies whose aim is to improve work conditions of employees. The functions of Work Councils do not negate the rights of trade union activities. Trade unions in Greece exist at a national, sectoral, occupational and company level. At the national level there are two confederations. These are:

  • the General Confederation of Labour (GSEE) [8], which includes all trade unions covering employees under private labour relations in the private and broader public sector
  • the Civil Servants’ Confederation (ADEDY) [9], which includes the trade unions from the public sector.

Law 1264/1982 [8]refers to the democratisation of the trade union movement for safeguarding freedoms of workers' trade unions. The number of trade unions at the company level in Greece is limited. One reason of this is that Law 1264/1982 [10] requires the existence of 21 members to set up a trade union. The number of private enterprises employing over 20 workers in Greece is relatively small. [9]

The system of collective bargaining has been in force since 1990. There are four categories of collective agreements [10]:

  • (a) “The National Collective Agreement (EGSEE) which is cosigned by GSEE on behalf of the trade unions and the Federation of Greek Industries (SEV) [11], the National Confederation of Hellenic Commerce (ESEE) [12] and the Confederation of Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (GSEVEE) [13] on behalf of the employers;
  • (b) Sectoral collective agreements, which are cosigned by sectoral federations of employers and employees;
  • (c) Company collective agreements which are cosigned by the plant-level trade union and the company management and cover all employees of a single company;
  • (d) National occupational and local or regional occupational collective agreements, which cover employees engaged in a specific occupation or profession at the national or local level, are cosigned by employer federations and occupational trade unions”.

Important information concerning various aspects in the field of industrial relations and, legislation around Collective Bargaining in Greece, can be accessed in the website of the Organisation for Mediation & Arbitration (OMED). [14] The European Survey of Enterprises on New and Emerging Risks (ESENER) is a survey based on telephone interviews concerning private and public sector establishments. The survey places emphasis on worker participation in OSH management and psychosocial risks. According to the ESENER study, one in ten establishments in Greece has a general representation scheme (work council, trade union). The main form of general representation is the trade union. Works Councils exist in theory but not often in practice. [15], [16]

Some studies that have been conducted in Greece, concerning “trade union density” (i.e. worker participation in trade union organisations), mention that it is difficult to come up with trustworthy data. However, in all these studies it is noted that there is a substantial difference between the private and public sector and particularly the trade union density in the private sector is very low. One study mentions that the reason for the large discrepancies between the private and public sector is due to the fact that the private sector is dominated by small enterprises. [17] For example:

  • It is mentioned that trade union density is about 28% (2007 data). These data were determined from the number of participants involved in procedures to elect representatives. Specifically, union density was less than 18% in the private sector and about 60% in the public sector. The latter percentage did not include unionised employees from security forces, nor did it include non-unionised military personnel. [18]
  • Two studies conducted by VPRC in conjunction with GSEE in 2003 and 2004, revealed that worker participation in trade unions was around 21% and 17%, respectively. These studies were based on answers to questionnaires obtained from a sample of employees. [19]
  • A recent study by VPRC (2010) revealed that less than 50% of employees who took part in this study answered that a trade union existed in the company in which they were working. The results of this study also revealed that only 44% of the members of trade unions take part in trade union procedures. [20]
  • According to the key facts presented in the “Gateway to information on worker participation in Europe” [21]: “between a fifth and a quarter of employees in Greece are union members, but the position is very different in the public and state-owned sector, where unions have high levels of membership, and the private sector, where unions are weak”.

State own companies

For state-own companies, that is for those in which the State has a greater than 50% share, 2 employees can be elected as members of the administrative board of the company. The law states that these 2 representatives should be nominated by the employees of the company, however, they are usually nominated by the trade union. [22], [23]

Group level employee representation

The work councils of enterprises belonging to the same group of companies may appoint a joint representative. This representative is chosen from councils of the separate enterprises and represents all employees' interests. In cases where a work council exists in only one of the enterprises in the group, this council may also represent the employees of other enterprises in their dealings with the group's central administration. At present employee representation at that group level is rarely found in Greece.[24]

OSH and worker participation in Greece

Legislation

The main legal source for worker information and consultation on OSH matters at the European level is the OSH Framework Directive 89/391/EEC [25]. Worker participation is a fundamental part of the OSH management framework promoted in this directive.

A milestone in the development of OSH in Greece was Law 1568/1985 “On Health and Safety at Work”. [26] This framework legislation has allowed the establishment of a number of institutions, such as Occupational Health and Safety Committees at the enterprise level and the Health and Safety at Work Council at the national level.

The OSH Framework Directive 89/391/EEC [27]has been transposed into Greek law by the Presidential Decree 17/1996 “On Measures for the Improvement of Safety and Health of Employees during their Work Activities”. [28] This decree was applied to both the private and the public sector and to all employers with at least one worker. It stipulated employers’ obligations, such as performance of risk assessment and provision for training and health monitoring of employees. The law stated that the employees should take part in any risk assessment scheme.

Further important framework legislation was the Presidential Decree 159/1999 “Modification of PD 17/96” and Law 3144/2003 “On Social Dialogue for the Promotion of Employment, Social Protection and other Provisions”. [29]

Given the complexity of the legislative framework in Greece, a new law, Law 3850, dated the 2nd of June 2010 has collated all the above OSH matters in a “Code of Laws for the Health and Safety of Employees”. [30] Other regulations also include provisions for information and consultation on OSH matters.

Cross-industrial level

At the national level there are two councils, which have been commissioned to promote a dialogue on OSH matters between representatives from employers and employees, professional associations and the State. Other Organisations and Institutions, in which employers’ and employees’ representatives participate, are also concerned with OSH matters. Finally, a number of collective agreements include OSH related provisions.

The Council for Health and Safety at Work (SYAE)

Article 26 of Law 3850 [31] stipulates that the Council for Health and Safety at Work is a consultative body on OSH matters. It consists of representatives from the Technical Chamber of Greece (TEE), the Pan-Hellenic Medical Association (PIS), the Greek Chemists’ Association (EEX), the General Confederation of Greek Workers (GSEE), the Civil Servants’ Confederation (ADEDY), the National Association of Local Authorities (KEDKE) as well as representatives from the Ministry of Development, Competitiveness, Infrastructure, Transport and Networks, the Ministry of Health, the Ministry of Labour, Social Security and Welfare and the Ministry of Finance.

The Council for Social Inspection of the Labour Inspectorate

The Council for Social Inspection of the Labour Inspectorate [SKEE] [32] is a consulting body of the Labour Inspectorate and at the same time examines, evaluates and controls its function. It consists of representatives from the employees’ organisations such as the General Confederation of Greek Workers (GSEE) and the Civil Servants’ Confederation (ADEDY), from employers organizations, such as the Federation of Greek Industries (SEV), the National Confederation of Hellenic Commerce (ESEE), the Confederation of Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (GSEVEE), and one representative from the Labour Inspectorate and one representative from the Union of Prefectures (ENAE).

The Hellenic Institute for Occupational Health and Safety (ELINYAE)

The Hellenic Institute for Occupational Health and Safety (ELINYAE) [33] is a bipartite (employers – employees) non-profit organization. The General Confederation of Greek Workers (GSEE), the Federation of Greek Industries (SEV), the National Confederation of Hellenic Commerce (ESEE), the Confederation of Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (GSEVEE) jointly founded the Institute in 1992.

It consists of four centres:

  • Occupational Safety Centre: This centre deals with safety issues and ergonomic aspects in order to improve work conditions and the prevention of accidents at work. It performs safety audits and ergonomic analysis in the work environment, provides expertise in the event of occupational accidents upon request and, collaborates in EU research projects.
  • Occupational Health and Hygiene Centre: This centre consists of the Department of occupational medicine, the Laboratory of Industrial Hygiene and the Laboratory of Biochemistry and Analytical Toxicology. It has developed sampling and analytical methods for the detection of chemical, physical and biological hazards in the work environment and carries out biological monitoring of hazardous substances.
  • Documentation and Information Centre: This centre collects, organizes, maintains and disseminates information concerning OSH. Its library provides access to relevant literature and information resources.
  • Vocational Training Centre: The centre organizes and conducts training programs, seminars, half-day seminars, presentations for Occupational Health and Safety Committees (EYAE), employees, unionists executives, employers, business managers, safety engineers, occupational physicians, etc.

Apart from its headquarters in Athens, the Institute has six regional branches. These are in Thessaloniki, Ioannina, Tripoli, Volos, Komotini and Iraklio.

Consulting Committee for the provision of licences to External Services for Protection and Prevention

Article 24 of Law 3850/2010 [34] stipulates that a consulting committee advises the Minister of Labour, Social Security and Welfare on the provision of licenses of External Services for Protection and Prevention. The members of this Committee consist of: 2 employees from the Ministry of Labour, Social Security and Welfare, one employee from the Ministry of Health and Social Solidarity, and one representative from each of: the General Confederation of Greek Workers (GSEE), the Federation of Greek Industries (SEV), the National Confederation of Hellenic Commerce (ESEE), the Confederation of Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (GSEVEE), the Technical Chamber of Greece, the Panhellenic Medical Association (PIS) and the Greek Chemists’ Association (EEX).

National Collective Agreements

A number of National Collective Agreements also contain OSH related provisions. For example:

  • The National Collective Agreement of 1992-1993 in Article 6 refers to the establishment of the Hellenic Institute for Occupational Health and Safety. [35]
  • The National Collective Agreement of 2004-2005 contains provisions for the enforcement of OSH measures (Article 17) and for the prevention of moral and sexual harassment in the workplace (Article 18). [36]
  • The National Collective Agreement 2008-2009 contains provisions for funding the Hellenic Institute for Occupational Health and Safety (Article 12). [37]

Regional level

Prefectural Committee for Health and Safety at Work

According to Article 27 of Law 3850 [38] each prefecture of the country is obliged to have a Prefectural Committee for Health and Safety at Work (NEYAE). These committees also act as consulting bodies, and coordinate the centres of local authorities on OSH matters. They consist of the prefect, a labour inspector from the region, a representative from the Ministry of Health, representatives from the Civil Servants’ Confederation (ADEDY), the Organisations of Local Authorities etc.

Regional Committees for Social Inspection of the Labour Inspectorate

Regional Committees for Social Inspection of the Labour Inspectorate [39]are consulting bodies of the Labour Inspectorate and at the same time examine, evaluate and control its function at the regional level. In these committees participate representatives from local authorities and from the employees’ and employers’ organizations at the regional level.

Sectoral level

Sectoral Occupational Health and Safety Committees

The legislation foresees the establishment of sectoral institutions for the consultation of workers on OSH matters for two sectors, which have highly dangerous work activities (Law 3850/2010 [28], Law 3144/2003 [40]]).

More precisely: (a) In the construction industry a sectoral Occupational Health and Safety Committee is put in place. This committee comprises of representatives from the inspectorate body, the trade unions and the Technical Chamber of Greece.

(β) In the shipyard and repairing industry a sectoral Occupational Health and Safety Committee is put in place. This committee comprises of representatives from the inspectorate body, the employers, the trade unions, the Technical Chamber of Greece, the Port Authorities and the General State Laboratory.

Consulting Committee for the provision of licences to Companies involved in asbestos removal

According to the Ministerial Decision 21017/84/2009 [34], removal of asbestos or asbestos containing materials during construction or demolition works can only be carried out by certified companies. Licences to carry out their work are provided by a Consulting Committee (Article 12, Ministerial Decision 21017/84/2009 [41]). The members of this Committee consist of: 2 representatives from the Ministry of Labour, Social Security and Welfare, and one representative from each of the Ministry of Health, the General Confederation of Greek Workers (GSEE), the Federation of Greek Industries (SEV), the Technical Chamber of Greece, the Panhellenic Medical Association (PIS) and the Greek Chemists’ Association (EEX).

Sectoral Collective Agreements

Many Sectoral Collective Agreements contain OSH related provisions. Usually these provisions are related to extra benefits or premiums for highly dangerous work and for the procurement of personal protective equipment. Examples of such sectoral collective agreements can be found in the cement industry [42], the private health sector [43], and the construction industry [44]. The texts of Sectoral Collective Agreements can be accessed on the website of the Organisation for Mediation & Arbitration (OMED) [45].

Professional associations

Many other professional associations are known to provide services to their members on OSH matters. They help their members to fulfil their duties as safety engineers, occupational physicians, members of Occupational Health and Safety Committees (EYAE), unionists, researchers etc. Three examples of professional associations providing such services are:

  • The Permanent Committee on Occupational Safety and Health of the Technical Chamber of Greece (TEE) [46].
  • The Department for the Environment and Health and Safety at Work of the Greek Chemists’ Association (EEX) [47].
  • The Greek Society for Environmental and Occupational Medicine (EEIEP) [48].

Company level

Occupational Health and Safety Representatives & Occupational Health and Safety Committees

Articles 4 through 7 of Law 3850 [49] describe the function and role of the Health and Safety Representatives (HSReps) and the Health and Safety Committees (HSCs) at the company level. In companies with less than 20 employees, workers have the right to set up a HSRep through negotiation among the employees. In companies with more than 20 employees, workers have the right to set up HSReps through elections. Workers in companies which employ more than 50 persons have the right to set up a HSC consisting of elected representatives. If there is no Work Council in the company, the law provides that workers shall elect a HSC every two years. Otherwise the work Council can nominate the members of the committee. Every worker has the right to vote or to be elected in the HSC elections. The HSC shall consist of:

  • two members in a company employing 21 to 100 workers
  • three members in a company employing 101 to 300 workers
  • four members in a company employing 301 to 600 workers
  • five members in a company employing 601 to 1000 workers
  • six members in a company employing 1001 to 2000 workers
  • seven members in a company employing more than 2000 workers.

The employer has to provide adequate training for all workers in the company. HSReps and HSCs have the right to be trained appropriately. The law stipulates training for HSReps and HSCs but does not prescribe a minimum number of hours or course content. Training is carried out by public institutions and authorities and training centers related to OSH issues, including the Hellenic Institute for Occupational Health and Safety.

It should be mentioned that employers have the responsibility to take all the measures prescribed by the laws on occupational health and safety. The HSReps and HSCs act as consultative bodies. They advice employers on OSH measures to be taken, but they do not have the responsibility for taking these measures. HSReps and HSCs identify occupational hazards at the workplace and propose measures for their avoidance, study work conditions, propose measures for improving these conditions, supervise compliance with health and safety measures and contribute to their implementation by the workers. They can play an active role in the elaboration of risk assessment in the company, thus supporting the Safety Engineer and Occupational Physician in their tasks, and propose measures for the minimization of risks. They have the right to be informed on the company’s accident records. They also have the right to be informed about the introduction of new manufacturing procedures, machinery, tools and materials, new installations, insofar as these measures may affect health and safety at work. In case of serious accidents at work they shall propose appropriate measures to avoid their reoccurrence. In the event of immediate or serious hazards they call on the employer to undertake appropriate measures, which may include shutting down machinery and installations or even the cessation of the production process. With the consent of the employer they can request the advice of experts, such as The Hellenic Institute for Occupational Health & Safety.

There is no specific provision regarding the frequency of meetings among the members of the HSC. According to the law, the HSC will hold at least one meeting with the employer or his/her representative within the first ten days of each three-month period. The Safety Engineer and the Occupational Physician shall participate in these joint meetings.

HSReps and HSCs have the legal right to be absent from work in order to execute their duties without loss of pay (Law No. 3850, Article 42(§4). In addition, employers must provide workers’ OSH representatives with the necessary means to enable them to exercise their rights and functions.

HSReps and HSCs are protected against dismissal (Law No. 3850, Article 7(§9) [50]) and they must not suffer from unfavorable consequences due to OSH activities (Law No. 3850, Article 46(§4) [51]). Dismissal from work is not allowed for an elected active member in a trade union. This provision also applies for HSReps and HSCs (Law No. 1264, Article 14 [52]).

Provisions regarding HSReps and HSCs have not been widely implemented in Greece. The need for enforcement in this area is mentioned in the Greek national strategy for OSH matters [53].

Sufficient data regarding the number of HSReps and HSCs in Greece is not available. However, in the few studies that have been conducted, it was noted than the number of HSReps and HSCs in Greek companies is very small [54], [55], [56], [57].

According to the Esener study [58], Greece, in comparison to other countries “has the lowest incidences, for both the bodies of general employee representation (10%) and those of specific health and safety representation (15%)”. It is noted that “in total, just 18% of the Greek establishments with ten or more employees have any of these types of employee representation in place”.

A study conducted by the INE GSEE-ADEDY regarding the presence of HSCs in Greek companies based on questionnaires, revealed that [59], [60]: “Only 32% of the respondents stated that this committee exists in practice in their workplace, and about two in three respondents (68%) reported that it does not exist or that they did not know whether it did.”

Consultation and Participation of Workers

According to Article 46 of law 3850/2010 [28] employers are obliged to consult workers and their representatives and allow them to take part in discussions on all questions relating to safety and health at work. This presupposes: a) consultation of workers; b) the right of workers and their representatives to make proposals; c) a balanced participation in accordance with national laws and practices. In this context, workers and their OSH representatives shall take part or shall be consulted by the employer with regard to:

  • anything which could have consequences on occupational health and safety
  • OSH training programs
  • Health and Safety Regulation
  • persons who will undertake the duty of Safety Εngineer and Οccupational Physician
  • external OSH services
  • preparation of the Risk Assessment Document
  • problems associated with the interaction of a specific work environment and the wider general environment.

Workers and their OSH representatives have the right to ask the employer to take appropriate measures and to submit proposals to him/her with the aim to mitigate OSH hazards and to remove sources of dangers. In addition, they have the right to approach the Inspection Authorities if they judge that the health and safety measures taken are inadequate for the protection of workers. They also have the right to participate in visits conducted by Inspection Authorities at the workplace. When participating in these visits they must mention their observations. Workers and their representatives must not incur unfavorable consequences due to OSH activities (Law No. 3850, Article 46(§4)) [61].

Provisions for worker participation and consultation are also included in specific regulations regarding the protection of workers from hazardous physical, chemical and biological agents at work (e.g. PD 149/2006 [62] on noise, PD 176/2005 [63]on vibrations, PD 82/2010 [64]on artificial optical radiation, PD 338/2001 [65] on dangerous substances, PD 399/1994 [66]on carcinogens, PD 186/1995 [67] on biological agents, PD 398/1994 [68]on display screen equipment, PD 395/1994 [69] on work equipment and PD 397/1994 [70]on manual handling of loads).

In the Joint Ministerial Decision 12044/613/2007 [71] regarding the control of major-accident hazards involving dangerous substances, provisions are included for the participation and consultation of workers on issues such as the preparation of the “external emergency plan” as well as the “safety management system”. It is noteworthy that involvement of subcontracted personnel working in the company is also included in these provisions.

Work Councils

According to laws 1767/1988 [72] and 2294/1994 [73], the Work Council decides in conjunction with the employer for the preparation of the “Occupational Health and Safety Regulation” for the company. In addition to this, they codecide for the reintegration in appropriate work tasks of persons who have some disability as a result of a previous work accident in the company.

References

  1. ILO Convention concerning Occupational Safety and Health and the working environment C155, 1981. Available at: [1]
  2. ILO Recommendation concerning Occupational Safety and Health and the Working Environment R 164, 1981. Available at: [2]
  3. ILO Recommendation concerning communications between management and workers within the undertaking R 129, 1967. Available at: [3]
  4. Council Directive 2002/14/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 11 March 2002 establishing a general framework for informing and consulting employees in the European Community - Joint declaration of the European Parliament, the Council and the Commission on employee representation, OJ L 080, 23.03.2002, p. 0029 – 0034. Available at: [4]
  5. Presidential Degree 240/2006 on information and consultation of workers, 16 November 2006 (in Greek). Available at: [5]
  6. Lampousaki, S., INE GSEE / ADEDY, The impact of the information and consultation directive on industrial relations — Greece, 2009. Retrieved 15 February 2013, from: [6]
  7. Law 1767/1988 on Work Councils, 6 April 1988 (in Greek). Available at: [7]
  8. Law 1264/1982 on democratisation of the trade union movement for safeguarding workers' trade union freedoms, 1 July 1982 (in Greek). Available at: [8]
  9. European Industrial relations Observatory On-Line (Page last updated 18 April 2013), Greece: Industrial relations profile. Available at: [9]
  10. European Industrial relations Observatory On-Line (Page last updated 18 April 2013), Greece: Industrial relations profile. Available at: [10]
  11. The Federation of Greek Industries (SEV). Home page, (in Greek). Retrieved 15 February 2013, from: [11]
  12. The Confederation of Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (GSEVEE). Home page, (in Greek). Retrieved 15 February 2013, from: [12]
  13. The National Confederation of Hellenic Commerce (ESEE). Home page, (in Greek). Retrieved 15 February 2013, from: [13]
  14. Organisation for Mediation & Arbitration (OMED). Home page. Retrieved 15 February 2013, from: [14]
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  26. Law 1568/1985 on Health and Safety at Work, 18 October 1985 (in Greek). Available at: [26]
  27. Council Directive 89/391/EEC of 12 June 1989 on the Introduction of Measures to encourage Improvements in the Safety and Health of Workers at Work, OJ L 183. Available at: [27]
  28. Presidential Decree 17/1996 on Measures for the Improvement of Safety and Health of Employees during their Work Activities, 18 January 1996 (in Greek). Available at: [28]
  29. Law 3144/2003 on Social Dialogue for the Promotion of Employment, Social Protection and other Provisions, 8 May 2003 (in Greek). Available at: [29]
  30. Law 3850/2010, Code of Laws for the Health and Safety of Employees, 2 June 2010 (in Greek). Available at: [30]
  31. Law 3850/2010, Code of Laws for the Health and Safety of Employees, 2 June 2010 (in Greek). Available at: [31]
  32. The Council for Social Inspection of the Labour Inspectorate (SKEE), (in Greek). Retrieved 15 February 2013, from: [32]
  33. The Hellenic Institute for Occupational Health and Safety (ELINYAE). Home page. Retrieved 15 February 2013, from: [33]
  34. Law 3850/2010, Code of Laws for the Health and Safety of Employees, 2 June 2010 (in Greek). Available at: [34]
  35. National General Collective Agreement 1991-1992, 4 April 1991 (in Greek). Available at: [35]
  36. National General Collective Agreement 2004-2005, 24 May 2004 (in Greek). Available at: [36]
  37. National General Collective Agreement 2008-2009, 2 April 2008 (in Greek). Available at: [37]
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  40. Law 3144/2003 on Social Dialogue for the Promotion of Employment, Social Protection and other Provisions, 8 May 2003 (in Greek). Available at: [40]
  41. Ministerial Decision 21017/84/2009 on the requirements for specific work processes for enterprises who engage on the removal of asbestos or asbestos containing materials during construction or demolition works, 30 June 2009 (in Greek). Available at: [41]
  42. Collective agreement for the cement sector, 17 December 2010 (in Greek). Available at: [www.omed.gr/el/index.php?module=mysse&action=downloadFile&myid=4459]
  43. Collective agreement for the private health sector, 28 June 2012 (in Greek). Available at: [42]
  44. Collective agreement for the construction industry, 17 November 2011 (in Greek). Available at: [43]
  45. Organisation for Mediation & Arbitration (OMED). Home page. Retrieved 15 February 2013, from: [44]
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  47. The Greek Chemists’ Association (EEX). Home page, (in Greek). Retrieved 15 February 2013, from: [46]
  48. The Greek Society for Environmental and Occupational Medicine (EEIEP). Home page, (in Greek). Retrieved 15 February 2013, from: [47]
  49. Law 3850/2010, Code of Laws for the Health and Safety of Employees, 2 June 2010 (in Greek). Available at: [48]
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  51. Law 3850/2010, Code of Laws for the Health and Safety of Employees, 2 June 2010 (in Greek). Available at: [50]
  52. Law 1264/1982 on democratisation of the trade union movement for safeguarding workers' trade union freedoms, 1 July 1982 (in Greek). Available at: [51]
  53. The National Strategy for Health and Safety at Work 2010-2013, Ministry of Labour and Social Security, (in Greek). Available at: [52]
  54. David Walters, Employee representation and occupational health and safety: the significance of Europe, Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries, Volume 8, Issue 6, 1995, p. 313-318. Abstract available at: [53]
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  57. Boukouvalas, K., Evaluation of the legislation on health and safety at work in Greece, in Enimerosi, No. 116, April 2005, Athens, INE/GSEE-ADEDY, pp. 2–38, (in Greek). Available at: [56]
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  59. European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions, Health and safety at work in Greece, 2007. Available at: [58]
  60. Boukouvalas, K., Evaluation of the legislation on health and safety at work in Greece, in Enimerosi, No. 116, April 2005, Athens, INE/GSEE-ADEDY, pp. 2–38, (in Greek). Available at: [59]
  61. Law 3850/2010, Code of Laws for the Health and Safety of Employees, 2 June 2010 (in Greek). Available at: [60]
  62. Presidential Degree 149/2006 on noise, 28 July 2006 (in Greek). Available at: [61]
  63. Presidential Degree 176/2005 on vibrations, 14 September 2005 (in Greek). Available at: [62]
  64. Presidential Degree 82/2010 on artificial optical radiation, 1 September 2010 (in Greek). Available at: [63]
  65. Presidential Degree 338/2001 on the protection of workers from the risks related to exposure to dangerous substances at work, 9 October 2001 (in Greek). Available at: [64]
  66. Presidential Degree 399/1994 on the protection of workers from the risks related to exposure to carcinogens at work, 19 December 1994 (in Greek). Available at: [65]
  67. Presidential Degree 186/1995 on the protection of workers from the risks related to exposure to biological agents at work, 30 May 1995 (in Greek). Available at: [66]
  68. Presidential Degree 398/1994 on display screen equipment, 19 December 1994 (in Greek). Available at: [67]
  69. Presidential Degree 395/1994 on work equipment, 19 December 1994 (in Greek). Available at: [68]
  70. Presidential Degree 397/1994 on manual handling of loads, 19 December 1994 (in Greek). Available at: [69]
  71. Joint Ministerial Decision 12044/613/2007 on the control of major-accident hazards involving dangerous substances, 19 March 2007 (in Greek). Available at: [70]
  72. Law 1767/1988 on Work Councils, 6 April 1988 (in Greek). Available at: [71]
  73. Law 2294/1994 on trade union rights, 6 July 1994 (in Greek). Available at: [72]

Links for further reading

OSH Wiki, OSH System at national level – Greece. Retrieved 15 February 2013, from: [73]

EU-OSHA – European Agency for Safety and Health at Work, Healthy Workplaces Campaign 2012-13 – Working together for risk prevention, 2012. Retrieved 15 February 2013, from: [74]

Eurofound – European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions, Health and safety at work in SMEs: Strategies for employee information and consultation, 2010. Available at: [75]

Eurofound – European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions, Social dialogue and working conditions, 2011. Available at: [76]

Eurofound - European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions, Workplace employee representation in Europe, 2012. Available at: [77]

Contributors

Spyros  Dontas