Worker participation - Lithuania

From OSHWiki
Jump to: navigation, search


Audrius Spirgys, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, and Gediminas Vilkevicius, Aleksandras Stulginskis University, Lithuania


Introduction

Successful management of health and safety at work requires workers to be informed, consulted and allowed to take part in discussions on all questions related to occupational safety and health (OSH) [1].

Requirement on workers’ collective representation in the health and safety area is the subject of European regulatory provisions (e.g. the EU OSH Framework Directive 89/391EEC [2]) as well as national legislation on the health and safety management. Lithuanian system of social partnership is developed on a state, territorial and company levels.

The article presents Lithuanian system of social partnership and worker participation at different levels. Unfortunately there are no studies and surveys on the implementation of this system in practice and reliable data on the number of OSH committees and work councils in the Lithuanian companies.

Regulatory framework for worker participation

At the international level, worker participation is the subject of the ILO regulatory documents (Communications within the Undertaking Recommendation, 1967 (No. 129) [3], Occupational Safety and Health Convention, 1981 (No. 155) [4], Occupational Safety and Health Recommendation, 1981 (No. 164) [5]). The OSH Framework Directive (89/391EEC) [2], the European Works Council Directive (94/45/EC) [6], followed by the Council Directive 2001/86/EC supplementing the Statute for a European company with regard to the involvement of employees [7] and Directive 2002/14/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council establishing a general framework of informing and consulting employees in the European Community constitute regulatory framework for the European system of worker involvement in the affairs of enterprise [8]. Several models of participation by agreement are possible but the most important is the board-level representation of employees.

Information and consultation. General recommendations on communication between employers and workers are laid out in the ILO Recommendation R-129 [3]. Specific rights for workers’ representatives with respect to information, consultation and other forms of worker participation are described in article 12 of the ILO Recommendation R-164 [5].

At the European level Directive 2002/14/EC [8] establishes a general legal framework setting out minimum requirements for informing and consulting employees in companies within the Community. The Directive obliges the Member States to determine requirements for employers to inform and consult employees via the workers’ representatives in the company in three specific areas:

  • The recent and probable development of the company’s activities and economic situation.
  • The situation, structure and probable development of employment and any anticipatory measures envisaged.
  • Decisions likely to lead to substantial changes in work organization or in contractual relations.

Requirements of the Directive 2002/14/EC were transposed into Lithuanian law by the Labour Code of 4 June [9].

The main legal source for worker information and consultation on OSH on a European level is the OSH Framework Directive 89/391/EEC [2]. Worker participation is a fundamental part of the OSH management framework promoted in this directive. In Lithuania the Framework Directive was transposed by the Law on Safety and Health at Work from the 1st July 2003 [10]. The law established the basis for a thorough reform of the legislation on health and safety at work including worker information, consultation and other participation.

The regulations on safety and health at work mentioned above should be applied to each company established in the territory of the Republic of Lithuania irrespective of its ownership form, economic activity or size.

OSH and worker participation

The Lithuanian system of social partnership (dialogue) is developed on the following levels: state (national), sector (production, services, professional), regional (municipality, county), company (enterprises, establishments or organisations and their structural divisions). This institutional system of negotiations at various levels between the social partners may result in the conclusion of collective agreements (CAs) on national, sectorial or company level.

State (national) level

In Lithuania there are two consultative bodies which provide a forum for advice and dialogue between the social partners on socio-economic national matters:

  • Tripartite Council of the Republic of Lithuania (Lietuvos Respublikos trišalė taryba (LRTT)) [11],
  • Occupational Safety and Health Commission of the Republic of Lithuania [12].

Tripartite Council of the Republic of Lithuania

The Tripartite Council of the Republic of Lithuania was established in 1995 following the agreement of 5 May 1995 (continued by the agreement of 11 February 1999 [13]) on tripartite partnership signed by the government, trade unions and employers’ organisations [14], in line with the provisions of ILO Convention No.144 [15]. The LRTT acts in compliance with the Constitution of the Republic of Lithuania, the Labour Code, other legislation and its own rules.

The main objectives of participating in the tripartite co-operation is exchanging information, seeking the balance of the partners’ interests, receiving approval from majority of social partners on the Government's policies, and forming a socioeconomic policy which reflects views and interests of the partners.

For this purpose, every two years the LRTT approves the action plan on development of social partnership between the Government of the Republic of Lithuania, trade unions and employer organisations.

Composition. The LRTT is comprised of the representatives of trade unions, employers’ organisations, and the government. The permanent members of the LRTT are representatives of the following organisations: trade union organisations (Lithuanian Trade Union Confederation, Lithuanian Trade Union 'Solidarumas' and Lithuanian Labour Federation), employers’ organisations (Lithuanian Confederation of Industrialists and Lithuanian Business Employers' Confederation), the government (Ministry of Finance, Ministry of the Economy, Ministry of Justice, Ministry of Social Security and Labour, Ministry of Agriculture). The maximum number of members of the LRTT may not exceed 15 (not more than five representatives from each party). The head office of the LRTT is at the Ministry of Social Security and Labour. The LRTT's chair is elected for a four-month term on the agreement of all parties. Members of the LRTT do not receive any remuneration for their work in the Council.

The organisational work related to the LRTT is carried out by its secretariat. The secretariat is led by the LRTT's general secretary, who is appointed and discharged by the Minister of Social Security and Labour on the proposal of the LRTT. The LRTT secretariat is financed from the national budget.

The LRTT sessions are held at least every two months (usually they are held monthly). An LRTT session is quorated only if attended by at least a half of the representatives from each party. If required to be absent for important reasons, a member of the LRTT may authorise another person to attend a session.

Formal opinions. The LRTT seeks to tackle social, economic and labour problems by mutual agreement thus promoting social harmony. The basic principles of LRTT's activities involve equality of rights of the parties, regular activities, joint consensus in decision-making and the recommendatory nature of decisions for the parties.

The LRTT has a predominantly advisory role. It provides the Government or Parliament with advice and makes proposals relating to social, economic and labour problems that concern employers and employees.

To discuss particular questions in depth, the LRTT may establish permanent or temporary tripartite commissions. There are currently four permanent tripartite commissions under the auspices of the LRTT covering: labour relations, remuneration, employment and social guarantees and tripartite consultations on the implementation of the international labour standards. The members of the LRTT may participate in the work of any of these commissions.

Seeking to continue and improve the tripartite co-operation in various employment and social security areas of common interest, on 13 June 2005 the Government, trade unions and employer organisations signed the Agreement on Tripartite Co-operation between the Government of the Republic of Lithuania, Trade Unions and Employer Organisations [16].

Occupational Safety and Health Commission of the Republic of Lithuania

The purpose of establishing the Occupational Safety and Health Commission of the Republic of Lithuania is to agree the interests of the State, employees and employers in the area of occupational health and safety on the basis of tripartite cooperation of social partners in Lithuania.

The OSH Commission was established in 1994 on the basis of the provisions of the Law on Human Safety at Work (now the Law on Safety and Health at Work [10]).

Composition. The procedure for the formation of OSH Commission and its functions are determined by the Regulations of the OSH Commission which were approved by the Government of the Republic of Lithuania.

The Commission consists of equal number of representatives from the state institutions and agencies, employers' organisations and workers' organisations. A total number of the OSH Commission members is 15 (five representatives from each party). The OSH Commission representatives from the state institutions and agencies are proposed by their heads and then appoint by the Minister of Social Security and Labour. Representatives from the employers' organisations and workers' organisations (trade unions) are appointed by their governing bodies.

The OSH Commission is headed by a chairman elected from the representatives of the parties on a half-year rotating basis.

Formal opinions. The OSH Commission is involved in formation and implementing the OSH policy by analysing the situation in this area, considering and making proposals related to laws and other regulations on the OSH issues. Decisions of the Commission are of an advisory character.

The OSH Commission examines the drafts of OSH laws and regulations and makes comments and proposals on them for the Ministry of Social Security and Labour, the Ministry of Health or other public authorities and institutions, if appropriate. The Commission also makes proposals to the relevant state authorities on the need of developing new or amending existing OSH legislation.

The OSH Commission considers reports of the State Labour Inspectorate on the state of occupational safety and health and compliance with labour legislation in Lithuania, analyses the state of OSH in Lithuanian companies, develops proposals to the public authorities and agencies, employer organisations, trade unions and companies on the measures and methods to improve the state of OSH. Likewise, the OSH Commission considers the drafts of OSH improvement programmes and measures and provides relevant recommendations.

County regional level

For the purpose of investigation of the issues related to prevention of violations of safety and health at work requirements in companies, county regional OSH commissions were established. Their establishment is based on the principle of tripartite co-operation of social partners. There are 10 county regional OSH commissions in Lithuania.

County regional OSH commissions were established in 2002 following the adoption of the Law on Safety and Health at Work in 2000 (new version of the Law on Safety and Health at Work [10] was adopted in 2003).

Composition. The procedure of the establishment and formation of the county regional OSH commissions was laid out by the Minister of Social Security and Labour and the Minister of Health Care [17].

The county regional OSH commission consists of equal number of representatives from the state institutions and agencies, employers' organisations and workers' organisations. A total number of the OSH commission members is nine (three representatives from each party). The county regional OSH commission representatives from the state institutions and agencies (the County administration, the State Labor Inspectorate regional division, the State Public Health Service regional division) are appointed by their heads. Representatives from the employers' organisations and workers' organisations (trade unions) are appointed by their governing bodies by consensus.

The county regional OSH commission is headed by a chairman elected from the representatives of the parties on a one-year rotating basis.

Formal opinions. The county regional OSH commission analyses information and data on the safety and health in the county’s companies, considers and proposes preventative measures for accidents at work, occupational diseases and measures to improve companies’ compliance of health and safety requirements.

The county regional OSH commission deals with the enforcement of insurance on accidents at work and occupational diseases and submits appropriate proposals to the policyholders and the insurance companies. The commissions submit proposals to the Lithuanian OSH Commission on the changes, additions to and developing new drafts of the applicable occupational safety and health legislation.

The county regional OSH commission cooperates with the OSH related state institutions and agencies, the employers' organisations and trade unions, heads of companies and representatives of employees.

Municipal level

For the purpose of the investigation of the issues related to prevention of violations of safety and health at work requirements in companies, municipal OSH commissions were established. Their establishment is based on the principle of tripartite co-operation of social partners. There are 60 municipal OSH commissions in Lithuania.

Municipal OSH commissions were established in 2004 on the basis of the provisions of the Law on Safety and Health at Work [10].

Composition. The procedure of the establishment and formation of the municipal OSH commissions was laid out by the Minister of Social Security and Labour and the Minister of Health Care [17].

The municipal commission consists of equal number of representatives from the municipal institutions and agencies, employers' organisations and workers' organisations. A total number of the OSH commission members is nine (three representatives from each party). The municipal OSH commission representatives from the municipal institutions and agencies are appointed by their heads. Representatives from the employers' organisations and workers' organisations (trade unions) are appointed by their governing bodies by consensus.

The municipal OSH commission is headed by a chairman elected from the representatives of the parties on a one-year rotating basis.

Formal opinions. The municipal OSH commission analyses information and data on the safety and health in the municipal’s companies, considers and proposes preventative measures for accidents at work, occupational diseases and measures to improve companies’ compliance of health and safety requirements.

The Commission deals with the enforcement of insurance on accidents at work and occupational diseases and submits appropriate proposals to the policyholders and the insurance companies.

The municipal OSH commission submits proposals to the county regional OSH commission on the changes, additions to and developing new drafts of the applicable occupational safety and health regulatory legislation. The municipal OSH commission cooperates with the OSH related municipal institutions and agencies, the employers' organisations and trade unions, heads of companies and representatives of employees.

Sectorial level

Pursuant to Paragraph 2 of Article 7 of the Law on Safety and Health at Work [10], on the principle of the bilateral co-operation between the employers’ organisations and trade unions from a relevant sector of economic activities sectorial OSH commissions may be established.

Currently there are no sectorial OSH commissions established in Lithuania.

Company level

Generally social dialogue at a company level takes place through a trade union (company’s trade union, trade union of the appropriate sector of economic activity), work council or workers’ representative.

When implementing occupational safety and health measures, the person representing the employer, persons authorised by the employer must inform workers and consult with them on all issues concerning the state of occupational safety and health and its improvement. For this purpose workers’ representatives with specific responsibility for the safety and health of workers should be appointed in all companies irrespective of a number of employees and occupational safety and health committees should be formed considering a number of employees and the economic activity types.

Trade union, work council and worker’s representative

Regulatory framework. The rights and interests of workers related to the labour relations (including occupational safety and health issues) may be represented and protected by the trade unions. When a company has no acting trade union and the company’s staff meeting has not assigned workers’ representation and protection to the trade union of the appropriate sector of economic activity, the employees should be represented by a work council or workers’ representative.

Workers’ representation by the trade unions, work councils and worker’s representatives is regulated by the Labour Code [9], the Law on Safety and Health at Work [10], the Law on trade Unions [18], the Law on Work Counsils [19] and other legal acts regulating OSH and relations between employers and employees.

Composition. A trade union may be established when there are at least 20 founders or the founders in the company comprise at least one-tenth of all the employees (one-tenth of all the employees should account at least three employees). This and other conditions of a trade union establishment are determined by the Law on trade Unions [18].

The procedures of the establishment of the work councils and election of the workers’ representative are determined by the Law on Work Councils [19].

The work councils should be set up in the companies with at least 20 employees. Depending on a number of employees in the company a work council may have from 3 to 15 members. Only one work council may be established in a company, irrespective of whether it has any structural divisions. A works council is established for a term of three years.

Election to the work council should be called by the employer upon the written proposal signed by at least one-tenth of employees of the company. The work council is elected at a direct election by a secret vote. All employees working in the company are eligible to be elected to the work council and have the vote (except those who are on parental leave, fulfilling active national defense service, employed under short-term employment contracts or working as the employer’s representatives). At the first meeting of the work council its members should elect the work council chairman, deputy chairman and secretary.

When a number of employees is less than 20 all functions of the work council are performed by a workers’ representative elected at the staff meeting.

Duties. When representing employees of the company, the trade union, work council or workers’ representative has the right to participate in the information and consultation procedures, be consulted on decisions of the employer, conclude a collective agreement of the company with the employer, receive from the employer all the information required for performing their functions, put forward proposals to the employer relating to the economic, social and work issues, decisions of the employer relevant to employees, as well as the implementation of laws, other regulatory enactments and collective agreements regulating employment relations, apply to the court in relation to the legitimacy of decisions or actions of the employer, discuss important economic, social and work issues, take a decision to call a strike and lead it. The work council and workers’ representative can not perform functions recognised by laws as a prerogative of the trade unions [9].

Occupational safety and health committee and workers’ representatives with specific responsibility for the safety and health of workers

Regulatory framework. Establishment of occupational safety and health committees, appointment of workers’ representatives with specific responsibility for the safety and health of workers and their activity are regulated by the Labour Code [9], the Law on Safety and Health at Work [10] and the General Regulations of Occupational Safety and Health Committees in Companies [20].

Composition. The OSH committee shall be established in those companies which employ more than 50 workers. If less than 50 workers are employed in a company, the committee may be established on the initiative of the employer, the workers’ representatives or at the proposal of more than a half of workers of the company. In the companies of certain economic activity types where an occupational risk is higher, the committee may be established even if there are less than 50 workers employed. These economic activity types are listed in the Annexes of the General Regulations of Occupational Safety and Health Committees in Companies [20].

The OSH committee is formed on a bilateral principle from an equal number of employer’s representatives appointed by the person representing the employer and the workers’ representatives with specific responsibility for the safety and health of workers.

Following the General Regulations of Occupational Safety and Health Committees in Companies, the companies must prepare their own regulations of the occupational safety and health committee in the company which are approved after consultation with the workers’ representatives.

The trade union of the company or workers’ representatives determines quota for the workers’ representatives with specific responsibility for the safety and health of workers in the company. Election of workers’ representatives with specific responsibility for the safety and health of workers and election of the members of the committee from the elected workers’ representatives with specific responsibility for the safety and health of workers are held in the meeting of the workers of the company. The election should be organised by the trade union of the company or, if there is no trade union, other workers’ representatives. Detailed procedure of the election is described in the General Regulations of Occupational Safety and Health Committees in Companies [20].

If there are more than one elected workers’ representative with specific responsibility for the safety and health of workers the meeting of the workers of the company designates one of them the senior workers’ representative and elects members of the OSH committee from the elected workers’ representatives. The senior workers’ representative will co-ordinate the activities of all workers’ representatives with specific responsibility for the safety and health of workers. At minimum one workers’ representative with specific responsibility for the safety and health of workers must be in each work shift.

The activities of the OSH committee are organised and it is chaired by a committee chair. The chair is the person representing the employer or the person appointed by him/her. The chairperson shall organise the work of the committee. A secretary of the committee is elected from the workers’ representatives with specific responsibility for the safety and health of workers.

Time spent by a member of the Committee for performing the required tasks on safety and health at work or for training in this area should be paid by applying his normal salary.

Roles and work organization of the occupational safety and health committee. According to the General Regulations of Occupational Safety and Health Committees in Companies [20] the OSH committee:

  • Analyses and evaluate the state of occupational safety and health in the company and discuss preventative measures for accidents at work and occupational diseases.
  • Within its jurisdiction examines the causes and circumstances of accidents at work and occupational diseases, develops and offers to the head of the company preventive measures to avoid them.
  • Evaluates state of occupational safety and health in the company’s subdivisions, analyses occupational risk assessment results, evaluates the activity of the heads of departments and other administration officials appointed by the head the company to implement the OSH measures, submits proposals to the head of the company concerning occupational safety and health in the company.
  • Analyses the disagreements between the employee and the head of the company or a person authorized by the employer on the employee's refusal to work.
  • Adopts resolutions on the considered matters, which the Chair of the OSH committee presents to the head of the company (if he/she is not a Chair of the OSH committee).

The OSH committee works according to the jointly approved OSH committee operational plan and meetings of the OSH committee are organised periodically. Additional OSH committee meetings are called in the event of the fatal, serious or group accidents, fire and if acute occupational disease occurs in the workplace, also on the basis of proposal by the Chair or a one-third of the Committee members.

Decisions of the Committee are recommendatory, with the exception of those concerning work stopping that are binding for the head of the company or a person authorized by the employer.

The employer should provide members of the committee with equipment necessary for carrying out their responsibilities. The head of the company and heads of its subdivisions at the request of the secretary of the OSH Committee must provide the OSH committee with all the information and materials on the OSH issues. The OSH committee, in coordination with the head of the company, may invite experts from the external companies to provide a support and expert knowledge for the committee work.

Roles of the workers’ representatives with specific responsibility for the safety and health of workers

According to the Law on Safety and Health at Work [10] workers’ representatives with specific responsibility for the safety and health of workers:

  • Represent workers in the OSH committee, participate in all the measures carried out by the employer to improve safety and health at work, including the occupational risk assessment and implementation of the measures to eliminate and/or decrease such risk.
  • Participate in the selecting and appointing by the person representing the employer or the person authorised by the employer the workers responsible for first aid, organisation of rescue work, evacuation in the event of accidents, natural disasters or fire.
  • Participate in providing the workers with necessary and appropriate personal protective equipment and controlling its proper use.
  • Participate in the investigation of accidents at work, occupational diseases and incidents.
  • Upon the order of the person representing the employer or the head of a subdivision inform the workers about the threat of or exposure to a danger and about measures to be taken in order to avoid the danger, and helps the workers to get to safe locations.

Workers’ representative with specific responsibility for the safety and health of workers has a right to propose and require that head of the subdivision should take necessary steps to ensure safety and health of workers at work, to take part in the occupational risk assessment and planning preventive measures, to inform the employer if head of the subdivision fails to take necessary steps to ensure safety and health of workers at work.

If the person representing the employer fails to take measures to eliminate and/or decrease the risk factors, workers’ representatives have a right to inform the State Labour Inspectorate.

The employer should provide the workers’ representatives with information and equipment necessary for carrying out their responsibilities and adequate time off work to perform the assigned functions.

The authorisation of the workers’ representative may be terminated or revoked by the workers’ representative who elected him.

Workers’ representatives shall be trained within the undertaking, at training seminars, relevant educational institutions which render services related to training in the field of safety and health at work in compliance with the General Regulations of Training and Testing of Knowledge in Safety and Health at Work, at the expense of the employer.

Training. The committee members and other workers’ representatives with specific responsibility for the safety and health of workers should be trained at the company, educational institutions which render services related to training in the field of OSH or OSH related seminars at the expense of the employer.

References

  1. Eurofound – European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions (2013). Home page. Retrieved 9 February 2013, from: http://www.eurofound.europa.eu
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 Framework Council Directive 89/391/EEC of 12 June 1989 on the introduction of measures to encourage improvements in the safety and health of workers at work. Available at: http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CELEX:31989L0391:en:HTML
  3. 3.0 3.1 ILO Recommendation concerning communications between management and workers within the undertaking R 129, 1967. Available at: http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:12100:0::NO::P12100_INSTRUMENT_ID:312467
  4. ILO Convention concerning Occupational Safety and Health and the working environment C155, 1981. Available at: http://www.ilo.org/safework_bookshelf/english?conv_content&nd=857172874
  5. 5.0 5.1 ILO Recommendation concerning Occupational Safety and Health and the Working Environment R 164, 1981. Available at: http://www.ilo.org/safework_bookshelf/english?conv_content&nd=857172902
  6. Council Directive 94/45/EC of 22 September 1994 on the establishment of a European Works Council or a procedure in Community-scale undertakings and Community-scale groups of undertakings for the purposes of informing and consulting employees. Available at: http://eur-lex.europa.eu/smartapi/cgi/sga_doc?smartapi!celexapi!prod!CELEXnumdoc&lg=EN&numdoc=31994L0045&model=guichett
  7. Council Directive 2001/86/EC of 8 October 2001 supplementing the Statute for a European company with regard to the involvement of employees. Available at: http://eur-lex.europa.eu/smartapi/cgi/sga_doc?smartapi!celexapi!prod!CELEXnumdoc&lg=EN&numdoc=32001L0086&model=guichett
  8. 8.0 8.1 Directive 2002/14/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 11 March 2002 establishing a general framework for informing and consulting employees in the European Community. Available at: http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2002:080:0029:0033:en:PDF
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 9.3 Labour Code, approved by the Lithuanian Parliament (Seimas) by Law No IX-926 of 4 June 2002. Available at: http://www3.lrs.lt/pls/inter3/dokpaieska.showdoc_e?p_id=191770
  10. 10.0 10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 10.5 10.6 10.7 Law on Safety and Health at Work, adopted by the Lithuanian Parliament (Seimas) on 1 July 2003. Available at: http://www3.lrs.lt/pls/inter3/dokpaieska.showdoc_l?p_id=306352
  11. Regulations of the Tripartite Council (Economic Social Council) of the Republic of Lithuania approved by the Tripartite Council of the Republic of Lithuania on 29 June 2010 (in Lithuanian). Available at: http://www.lrtt.lt/sites/default/files/TT%20nuostatai_2010%2006%2029.pdf
  12. Regulations of the Occupational Safety and Health Commission approved by the Government of the Republic of Lithuania on 09 January 2002 (in Lithuanian). Available at: http://www3.lrs.lt/pls/inter3/dokpaieska.showdoc_l?p_id=265677
  13. Agreement on Tripartite Co-operation between the Government of the Republic of Lithuania, Trade Unions and Employer Organisations signed on 11 February 1999 (in Lithuanian). Available at: http://www3.lrs.lt/pls/inter3/dokpaieska.showdoc_l?p_id=74440&p_query=&p_tr2=2
  14. Tripartite Council of the Republic of Lithuania (LRTT) (2013). Historical facts on the Tripartite Council (in Lithuanian). Retrieved 5 March 2013, from: http://www.lrtt.lt/trisale_taryba
  15. ILO C144 – Tripartite Consultation (International Labour Standards) Convention, 1976 (No.144). Available at: http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=NORMLEXPUB:12100:0::NO:12100:P12100_INSTRUMENT_ID:312289:NO
  16. Agreement on Tripartite Co-operation between the Government of the Republic of Lithuania, Trade Unions and Employer Organisations signed on 13 June 2005 (in Lithuanian). Available at: http://www3.lrs.lt/pls/inter3/dokpaieska.showdoc_l?p_id=257592&p_query=&p_tr2=2
  17. 17.0 17.1 Procedures of Establishment of County Regional and Municipal Occupational Safety and Health Commissions approved by the Minister of Social Security and Labour and the Minister of Health Care on 24 November 2003 (in Lithuanian). Available at: http://www3.lrs.lt/pls/inter3/dokpaieska.showdoc_l?p_id=222488&p_query=&p_tr2=2
  18. 18.0 18.1 Law on Trade Unions, adopted by the Lithuanian Parliament (Seimas) on 21 November 1991. Available at: http://www3.lrs.lt/pls/inter3/dokpaieska.showdoc_l?p_id=21129
  19. 19.0 19.1 Law on Works Councils, adopted by the Lithuanian Parliament (Seimas) on 26 October 2004. Available at: http://www3.lrs.lt/pls/inter3/dokpaieska.showdoc_l?p_id=321614&p_query=&p_tr2=2
  20. 20.0 20.1 20.2 20.3 General Regulations of Occupational Safety and Health Committees in Companies approved by the Lithuanian Occupational Safety and Health Commission on 29 October 2003 (in Lithuanian). Available at: http://www3.lrs.lt/pls/inter3/dokpaieska.showdoc_l?p_id=221667&p_query=&p_tr2=2


Links for further reading

Amendments of the Lithuanian Labour Code designed to increase labour market flexibility and to foster social dialogue, Information prepared by Boguslavas Gruzevskis and Inga Blaziene, SYSDEM Correspondent for Lithuania, 2009. Available at: http://www.eu-employment-observatory.net/resources/reports/Lithuania-LabourCodeAmendments.pdf

Eurofound – European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions, Lithuania: EWCO comparative analytical report on Information, consultation and participation of workers concerning health and safety, 2010. Available at: http://www.eurofound.europa.eu/ewco/studies/tn0911028s/lt0911029q.htm

EU-OSHA – European Agency for Safety and Health at Work, European Survey of Enterprises on New and Emerging Risks (ESENER), Managing safety and health at work, European Risk Observatory Report, 2010. Available at: https://osha.europa.eu/en/publications/reports/esener1_osh_management

EU-OSHA – European Agency for Safety and Health at Work, Worker representation and consultation on health and safety, An analysis of the findings of the European Survey of Enterprises on New and Emerging Risks (ESENER), 2012. Available at: https://osha.europa.eu/en/publications/reports/esener_workers-involvement

EU-OSHA – European Agency for Safety and Health at Work (no date), Healthy Workplaces Campaign 2012-13 – Working together for risk prevention. Retrieved on 28 March 2013, from: http://www.healthy-workplaces.eu/en/hw2012

Eurofound – European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions, Health and safety at work in SMEs: Strategies for employee information and consultation, 2010. Available at: http://www.eurofound.europa.eu/docs/ewco/tn0911028s/tn0911028s.pdf

Eurofound – European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions, Social dialogue and working conditions, 2011. Available at: http://www.eurofound.europa.eu/pubdocs/2011/12/en/2/EF1112EN.pdf

Eurofound - European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions, Workplace employee representation in Europe, 2012. Available at: http://www.ilo.org/public/libdoc/igo/2012/469934.pdf