OSH system at national level - Italy
Francesca Grosso, Adriano Papale, INAIL, Italy
- 1 Occupational safety and health legislative framework
- 2 National strategy and programmes
- 3 Social dialogue
- 4 OSH infrastructure
- 5 National competent bodies
- 6 Education, training and awareness raising
- 6.1 Legally required training for OSH specialists
- 6.2 Awareness raising networks
- 6.3 Specialized technical, medical and scientific institutions
- 6.3.1 Research institutes
- 6.3.2 Standardization bodies
- 6.3.3 Institutions and organisations
- 7 References
- 8 Links for future readings
Occupational safety and health legislative framework
The European Directives led to a new concept of safety and health at work (OSH), less impositive and more preventive. Such a change was expressed both at cultural and legislative terms in the national transpositions. The relevant national legislation is: the Legislative Decree no. 626 of September 19th 1994  and the current Legislative Decree no. 81 of April 9th 2008 , updated with the provisions introduced by Legislative Decree no. 106 of August 3rd 2009 ; which coordinates and restructures in a single regulation text all relevant legal provisions.
The Legislative Decree no. 626/94, which was in force until the first months of 2008, transposed a number of Directives from the European Union related to safety and health at workplace, including the framework Directive that set down general principles; the Decree evolved with the introduction of implementations of specific directives related to the different risks/hazards at workplace and which have been modified over time, as showed in the list below:
- Framework Directive 89/391/EEC (general principles) 
- Workplaces 89/654/EEC 
- Use of Work Equipment 89/655/EEC modified by Directive 95/63/EEC 
- Use of personal protective equipment 89/656/EEC 
- Manual handling of loads 90/269/EEC 
- Videoterminals 90/270/EEC],
- The carcinogens directive 90/394/EEC, as modified by Directive 97/42/EC and 99/38/EC extending the first with mutagens 
- Biological substances 90/679/CE as modified by Directive 93/88/EC 
- Chemicals 98/24/EC 
- Explosive atmospheres (ATEX) 99/92/EC 
- Physical Agents – Noise 2003/10/EC 
- Asbestos 2003/18/EC 
- Physical Agents – Electromagnetic fields 2004/40/EC 
The new OSH regulations introduced a new approach to safety at company level. The hierarchical rationale of the organisation is substituted by a system logic characterised by the sinergy of every stakeholder concerned, including workers who assume an active role in safety management. Safety is no more an imposition from the top, as provided for in the previous regulations, but it is organized taking into consideration collaboration and awareness. As a consequence, employers, managers, officers, are no more the only actors to be committed to check the compliance with safety rules but the entire organization system is deputated to act, in an integrated way, to constantly check workplaces, to assess the risks and plan prevention and protection measures to be implemented in order to improve, over time, working conditions.
National strategy and programmes
National strategies and programmes of prevention of accidents and occupational diseases are developed by the Steering and Evalutation Committee for Active Policies and the national coordination of surveillance activities related to health and safety at work (as provided for by Art. 5 of legislative Decree 81/08  Legislative decree no. 81, April 9th 2008, Implementation of the Article 1 of the Act no. 123, August 3rd, 2007, concerning the protection of health and safety at workplaces on the basis of the data provided by the National Information System for prevention at workplaces (SINP) (as established in Art. 8 of legislative Decree 81/2008  Legislative decree no. 81, April 9th 2008, Implementation of the Article 1 of the Act no. 123, August 3rd, 2007, concerning the protection of health and safety at workplaces (in Italian).
The National Prevention Plan for 2020-2025 is currently in progress .
National Information System for prevention at workplaces (SINP) The Information system is aimed to provide useful data to steer, plan, programme and evaluate the efficiency of the activities for the prevention of accidents at work and occupational diseases, in relation to registered and unregistered workers to public insurance organisms, and to address surveillance activities.
Bodies involved are: Ministry of Labour and Social Policies, Ministry of Health, Ministry of Interiors, Autonomous Regions and Trento and Bozen Provinces, INAIL (Istituto nazionale per l’Assicurazione contro gli Infortuni sul Lavoro – Italian Workers’ compensation Authority) and with the contribution of CNEL (National Council for Economy and Labour), Joint Committees and sectoral Bodies and Institutions.
The n..183 Decree dated 25 May 2016 provides technical rules to realize SINP ( as stated in 81/2008 Decree).
INAIL ensures technical and electronic organization and is the owner of data processing. The contents of the information flows are focused on: production and occupational system, risk prevention also in a gender oriented way, prevention interventions, surveillance and the framework of accidents below the compensation threshold established by INAIL (the compensation threshold relative to the obligation of reporting the accident to the INAIL for absences from work of at least three days excluding the day in which the accident occurred).
The Steering and Evalutation Committee for active policies and the national coordination of surveillance activities related to health and safety at work ( Comitato per l’indirizzo e la valutazione delle politiche attive e per il coordinamento nazionale delle attività di vigilanza in materia di salute e sicurezza sul lavoro). The Committee includes representatives from the Ministry of Labour and Social Policies, Ministry of Health , Ministry of Interiors, Ministry of Infrastructures and Transport and Regions and Trento and Bozen Autonomous Provinces
INAIL is included in the Committee with an advisory function. The functions carried on by such an organism are aimed at ensuring the implementation of the principle of fair cooperation between the State and the Regions. In view of this, the Committee set down the common guidelines of national policies regarding health and safety at work; identifies objectives and programmes of public intervention for the improvement of health and safety conditions; defines planning on a yearly basis of surveillance priority sectors, activity plans and national operational projects as well as the coordination plan of surveillance at national level; ensures the information exchange and identifies priority tasks in the research field.
The Permanent Advisory Committee for health and safety at work (Commissione Consultiva Permanente per la salute e sicurezza sul lavoro) The Committee, according to Art. 6 of legislative Decree 81/2008 ), is established at the Ministry of Labour and Social Policies and chaired by a representative of this Ministry. It also includes representatives of : Ministry of Health, Ministry of economical development, Ministry of Infrastructures and Transport , Ministry of Interiors, other core Ministries , Regions and Trento and Bozen Autonomous Provinces, trade union organizations, employers organizations, experts in occupational medicine and hygiene, and ANMIL (national association for disabled at work) ..
The members of the Commission and the secretaries are appointed by Decree of the Ministry of Labour and Social Policies, by appointment of competent organisms and hold the office for 5 years.
The Commission has the following tasks Legislative decree no. 81, April 9th 2008, Implementation of the Article 1 of the Act no. 123, August 3rd, 2007, concerning the protection of health and safety at workplaces (in Italian): to evaluate issues concerning regulation implementation relative to safety and health at work and provide legislative proposals; to express opinions and views on yearly plans of the steering, evaluation, coordination and surveillance Committee; to define promotional activities; to validate good practices; to draw on a yearly basis a report on the state of implementation of OSH regulation, on the basis of information by the SINP, to be transmitted to the Commission of competent Parliaments and to the Presidents of the Regions; to process standard procedures for the realization of risk analysis (for companies up to 50 employees); to identify organization and safety management models; to develop qualification criteria of the role of trainer for safety and health at work, taking into account also specificities and peculiarities of reference sectors; to develop any necessary guidelines to risk assessment related to work-related stress.
Within the Commission, sectors and criteria are identified in order to define a system of qualification for companies and self-employed workers; such a system is based on specific experiences, competences and know-hows acquired through training courses concerning health and safety at work. The expertise acquired is a qualification that represents a driver for participation to public calls for tenders or subcontracting and related funding or financial support.
Regional Committees of coordination (Comitati Regionali di coordinamento) ( DPCM 21 dicembre 2007 )
The Regional Committees, according to art. 7 of Legislative Decree 81/08 Legislative decree no. 81, April 9th 2008, Implementation of the Article 1 of the Act no. 123, August 3rd, 2007, concerning the protection of health and safety at workplaces (in Italian), have the functions of planning and providing guidelines for prevention and surveillance activities on the territory in compliance with national regulations and in agreement with the Steering and Evalutation Committee (Art. 5 of legislative Decree 81/08 Legislative decree no. 81, April 9th 2008, Implementation of the Article 1 of the Act no. 123, August 3rd, 2007, concerning the protection of health and safety at workplaces (in Italian). The Committees are chaired by the President of the regional council or a regional councillor. The members are representatives of various organisms and bodies involved in the implementation of policies concerning health and safety at work, such as: ASL (Local Health Units), ARPA (Regional Agency for Environment protection), Fire brigade Inspectorate, Regional Directorates of INAIL and INPS (National Institute for social security) ,ANCI (National Association of Italian Municipalities), UPI (Union of Italian Provinces), Maritime health Authority, Port authorities. Moreover, four representatives from employers' organizations and four representatives from trade union organizations are included.
Figure 1: The OSH infrastructure in Italy
(Source: Overview by the authors)
National competent bodies
OSH Authorities OSH Authorities, with legislative power, are: the Ministry of Labour and Social Policies and the Ministry of Health at national level; the Regions and Autonomous Provinces of Trento and Bozen (represented in the Conference of Regions and Autonomous Provinces) at territorial level.
The Ministry of Labour and Social Policies, in line with the provisions laid down in Legislative Decree n. 81 of April 9th 2008, is committed to build and disseminate safety and prevention culture, giving higher importance to all activities and initiatives contributing to promote responsible and self-aware behaviors in workers, addressed not only to one’s own safety but also of others, and to identify strategies aimed at effectively fighting against the occurrence of accidents at work. With regard to that, the Ministry, sustained by an ongoing dialogue with social actors working every day on the ground of a concrete implementation of safety rules, in addition to proceeding on the legal side to finalise the reform of the regulation in force in this sector, also carries on its monitoring action of the implementation process and the situation of the provisions in force; such an action is aimed at examining relevant implementation issues and, in view of this, to develop interventions and actions aimed at improving the same regulation.
In such a context, the competences of Division III OSH Promotion and Protection of the General Direction industrial relations and labour relationships fall within this scope . Division III manages : OSH legislation; management and coordination of sectoral bodies; promotion activities; funds; certification bodies and market surveillance activities; authorizations and other activities aimed at ensuring safety at work; activities related to qualified experts and licensed doctors;
The General Directorate for prevention at the Ministry of Health performs, among others, the following functions: - Prevention of occupational diseases and accidents, including other health-related competences, as defined by the Legislative Decree 81 Legislative decree no. 81, April 9th 2008, Implementation of the Article 1 of the Act no. 123, August 3rd, 2007, concerning the protection of health and safety at workplaces [Italian] of April 9th, 2008. - Prevention of exposure to chemical, physical and biological agents in the natural and living environment, in water for human consumption and in working environment.
The functions of the Conference of Regions and Autonomous Provinces (Conferenza delle Regioni e delle Province autonome) can be distinguished into 3 major priority areas: improving the connection to and the dialogue with the central State through the development of documents shared by the entire “system of regional Governments”; the establishment of a permanent interregional dialogue in order to disseminate best practices; the necessity of representing the “system of regional Governments” on an ongoing basis at the external and in the institutional relations In particular, the IX Commission on Education, Labour, Innovation and Research is competent in relation to: education and professional training, labour policies, safety at work, university and scientific research, professions. Inspection services According to the provisions laid down in Art. 13 of legislative Decree no. 81/2008  Legislative decree no. 81, April 9th 2008, Implementation of the Article 1 of the Act no. 123, August 3rd, 2007, concerning the protection of health and safety at workplaces [Italian], the inspection services on compliance with safety and health regulations are carried on by ASL, which are competent on the territory and, as for its specific competence, by the national Fire brigade department.
The inspection staff of the Ministry of Labour and Social Policies (Ispettorato Nazionale del Lavoro) performs an inspection activity on the implementation of legislation concerning health and safety at work in the following activities, in the framework of the territorial coordination provided by regional Committees: a) Activities in the sector of building, construction and civil engineering and, more in particular, works of construction, maintenance, repair, demolition, preservation and renovation of stable, permanent or temporary manufacts, both in armed concrete and brickwork, road works, railway works, hydraulic works, excavations, assembling and disassembling of pre-manufactured elements; subterranean and gallery works, including the use of explosives; b) Works using compressed air containers and works to be carried out underwater; c) Any other working activities involving particularly high risks.
Prevention and protection Services
The Art. 31 of Legislative Decree no. 81/2008 Legislative decree no. 81, April 9th 2008, Implementation of the Article 1 of the Act no. 123, August 3rd, 2007, concerning the protection of health and safety at workplaces [Italian] states that the employer organizes a prevention and protection Service within the company or the production unit, or appoints people or external services, established within the employers’ associations and joint organisms. #[link to OSHwiki main category OSH in general, subcategory What’s OSH, article title OSH services, article code RO-11-04-1]# The employer is given complete freedom to choose to organize internal or external services inside his own company or production unit. The prevention and protection Service and its Rrepresentative perform their major function which consists in the activity of risk assessment that is a condition for a subsequent development of safety measures aimed at neutralizing these risks. Such a structure provides for:
- identification of risk factors, risk assessment and identification of measures for safety and health at workplace, in compliance with the regulations in force on the basis of a specific knowledge of company organization;
- development, as far as it is competent, of prevention and protection measures and monitoring systems of such measures;
- development of safety procedures for the different company activities;
- proposal of information and training programmes for workers;
- consultations concerning health and safety at work, as well as participation at scheduled meetings;
- provision of information on the topic to workers.
The Article no. 15 of Legislative Decree no. 81/2008 Legislative decree no. 81, April 9th 2008, Implementation of the Article 1 of the Act no. 123, August 3rd, 2007, concerning the protection of health and safety at workplaces [Italian] identifies, among general measures of workers health and safety protection at workplace, “the employees’ health surveillance”.
Health surveillance is defined as follows, “The complex of medical acts, aimed at protecting health status and safety of workers, in relation to the environment in which they perform their activities, to occupational risk factors and to the ways the occupational activity is carried out” (Article 2, Legislative Decree 81/2008 ) and it is carried on by the Competent occupational physician.
The activity of the competent occupational physician shall be carried on according to the principles of occupational medicine and the ethical code of the international Commission of occupational health (ICOH) (Article 39 Legislative Decree 81/2008  Legislative decree no. 81, April 9th 2008, Implementation of the Article 1 of the Act no. 123, August 3rd, 2007, concerning the protection of health and safety at workplaces [Italian]).
The employer shall provide the competent occupational physician with any necessary conditions to perform his/her tasks and, in addition, shall guarantee his/her autonomy.
Compensation and insurance bodies
The insurance is compulsory for employers hiring employees and para-subordinate workers in the activities that the law identifies as dangerous and protects the worker against injuries due to accidents at workplace and occupational diseases. The insurance exonerates the employer from any civil liabilities subsequent to damages or injuries occurred to employees. The artisans, self-employed fishermen or associated ones in companies and consortia and self employed workers in the agriculture sector also are required to insure themselves. All work activities are divided into four groups, which correspond to different rates with different premium rates: industry; crafts; tertiary; other activities.
The employer must report INAIL on the activities, providing all the necessary information to assess the risks and to determine the insurance premium. For employees, the premium is calculated on the amount of salary and in relation to the risk of the work performed. For the artisans specific premium rates have been established per year. For self-employed workers in agriculture, the premium rate consists of a fixed amount paid to INPS (National Institute for Social Security) in addition to the other social security contributions. INAIL guarantees workers injured or suffering from occupational diseases: - the allowance for unpaid salary; - compensation for permanent psychophysical injury ("biological damage"); - the compensation for the property consequences of the biological damage; - the maximum recovery of health and employability; - compensation to family members in case of death.
INAIL, the Italian Workers’ compensation Authority, pursues a plurality of objectives: to reduce injury occurrence; to provide an insurance for workers carrying on activities at risk; to guarantee the reinsertion of injured workers in the working life. The protection of workers, also in the light of the recent law developments, has assumed an ever more character of integrated system of protection, stretching from prevention actions at workplaces, to health and economic benefits, care, rehabilitation and reinsertion in social and occupational life in the case of workers who suffered from physical injuries due to accidents at workplace or occupational diseases. In order to reduce accidents, INAIL carries on important actions aimed at monitoring, on an ongoing basis, the employment and accident trend, training and assistance to small and medium enterprises in relation to prevention and funding of companies investing in the improvement of safety.
Other OSH bodies
Table 1: Italian associations representing specific professional categories in the field of OSH
AIAS Italian Professional Association for safety and environment.Since 1975 it has carried out technical-scientific activities in the field of safety, health, environment and energy saving AIE Italian Association of Epidemiology It has the purpose of promoting epidemiology in the field of National Health Care system and to foster communication and links among experts of epidemiological research in Italy. AiFOS Italian Association of Trainers for Safety
It is a no profit association, established by trainers, teachers, professionals, consultants and companies working in the field of training on safety at workplace AIRESPSA Association of Responsible persons of prevention and protection services in the health care sector This is a scientific association aimed to guarantee a ground for dialogue, sharing of experiences among people working every day on risk management processes in health care facilities. AIRM Italian Association for Medical Radio protection
It has the purpose of promoting the occupational activity in the field of health care protection against ionizing and non ionizing radiations, with particular regard to tasks provided for by the Law to employees in medical radioprotection AIRP Italian Association of protection against radiations It pursues scientific and cultural objectives and promotes studies and actions addressed to professionals in the field of protection against ionizing and non ionizing radiations AITeP Italian Association of Prevention Technicians at Workplaces It promotes safety at workplaces, spreading the principles of prevention as widely as possible.
AMBLAV Work & Environment Association
It promotes the protection of environment and safety at workplaces
ANMA National association of company occupational physicians and competent occupational physicians
It promotes a culture aimed at the improvement of the quality of activities carried out by company occupational physicians and competent occupational physicians , and at a better qualification of their role and status and at their full integration in the industrial prevention systems
ANIS National Association of Safety Engineers
It promotes the strategic relevance of “Safety engineering”
ANMeLP Association of Public occupational Physicians
This non-profit Association has been founded for the main purpose of creating a place to share and discuss the scientific and professional problems related to the activities of Public occupational Physicians
ANPEQ National Association of Experts Qualified in Radioprotection
It gathers and represents the experts qualified in radioprotection. SIE Italian Society of Ergonomy
It promotes the development of ergonomics in connection with the productive system SNOP National Society of Prevention Operators It promotes prevention at workplaces and the improvement of standardization and quality of the interventions carried on by the public system of prevention on the whole national territory
AIDII Italian Association of Industrial Hygienists It promotes the development, analysis and spreading of industrial hygiene, with the purpose of health and environment protection inside and outside the workplace
SIML Italian Society of Occupational and Industrial Medicine It promotes occupational Medicine and Industrial Hygiene in Italy at scientific, cultural, technical, professional, legislative and regulatory levels
CIIP Inter-associative Council for Prevention It represents the main professional and scientific associations in the field of occupational medicine, industrial hygiene, environmental protection, safety of products and ergonomics .
(Source: Overview by the authors)
Education, training and awareness raising
Legally required training for OSH specialists
Information and training assume a basic role to ensure a full implementation of the principle of active participation of all the partners involved in safety management.
Basic training course for Responsible persons of internal/external prevention services The Legislative Decree 81/2008  Legislative decree no. 81, April 9th 2008, Implementation of the Article 1 of the Act no. 123, August 3rd, 2007, concerning the protection of health and safety at workplaces [Italian] lays down that all of the partners carrying on functions of responsibility or management relating to prevention and protection (respectively Addetto al Servizio di Prevenzione e Protezione (ASPP) and Responsabile del Servizio di Prevenzione e Protezione RSPP ) have got abilities and fulfil professional requirements which are “appropriate to the nature of risks at workplace and related to occupational activities” with the condition that they have got an education degree not lower than the diploma of higher secondary school and took part to specific training courses.
The Agreements between “State and Regions” (January 26th 2006, December 21st 2011 and July 7th 2016) on training of ASPP and RSPP regulate the safety Responsible person specific training courses distinguished in three modules (A, B, C) with an evaluation of learning process, concerning risk prevention and protection, including ergonomics and work-related stress, organization and management of technical-administrative activities and communication techniques within the company and industrial relations.
Module A represents the basic course for performing the roles of ASPP and RSPP. It consists of 28 hours. Module B is a specialization module, appropriate to the nature of risks at workplace and to the occupational activities; it consists of 48 hours of basic course and 12 up to 16 hours of specific course according to the specific macro-sectors.
Module C is a specialization module for RSPP only and is focused on risk prevention and protection, taking into account also ergonomic and psycho-social risks. The total amount of hours is 24. The above mentioned modules include, in addition and for each module, some hours addressed to evaluation at the end of the courses . 
The Agreement recognized on 26 January 2006  during the permanent Conference for the relations between the State, the Regions and the autonomous provinces of Trento and Bozen also regulates the methodology and organization of courses, identifying an active approach and learning techniques such as problem solving and practical case solving, guaranteeing at the same time a balance between face to face lessons, exercises, group discussions within the schedule and timetables established for each module.
As regards the organization of courses , the legislative Decree 195/2003  enables the regions and the autonomous provinces of Trento and Bozen, the universities, INAIL, the national Fire Brigade and other Institutions, trade union associations of employers and workers or joint bodies. Further training partners may be identified within the permanent Conference. Five years updating courses are compulsory.The five years based updating courses are unchanged . As far as the RSPP is concerned, the updating varies from 60 to 40 hours, according to the activity sector; for the ASPP the amount of hours is 28. 
The recent Agreements between “State and Regions” (December 21st 2011) on training of employers who play the role of RSPP training OSH training are is very significant [21 ]. The agreement defines the duration, the content and the methods of training. The main innovation concerns the identification of the duration of the training course according to the risk of the macro-sectors: low, medium, high.
Awareness raising networks
(Italian Workers' Compensation Authority - Istituto Nazionale per l’assicurazione contro gli infortuni sul lavoro, INAIL)  is the Italian Focal Point of EU-OSHA, in collaboration with its national network including: Ministry of Labour and Social Policies, Ministry of Health, Regions, Social partners, ISS; ANMIL. At the international level, the Institution carries on cooperation activites with research institutions of other countries with the objective of a development of the common European research area within the scope of the PEROSH (Promotion for European Research in Occupational Safety and Health) agreement. The Institution is also the Centre of Collaboration and the Italian Focal Point for the World Health Organisation (WHO) regarding issues of safety and health at workplaces; it represents the International Commission on Occupational Health (ICOH) Secretariat, and the national Centre for the International Occupational Safety and Health Information Centre (CIS) at the International Labour Office.
Specialized technical, medical and scientific institutions
INAIL (Research Sector) The Act no. 122  of July 30th, 2010 states the assignment to INAIL of the functions formerly carried on by ISPESL(Istituto Superiore per la Prevenzione e la Sicurezza sul Lavoro - National Institute for prevention and safety at work) in the field of technical-scientific activites, research, experimentation, control, consultancy, assistance and higher training. Accidents prevention , occupational safety, protection of health in living and working environments, training and promotion of safety culture are the main issues dealt with in the research projects that the Institution performs and/or finances. Other functions include the activites of first verification, verification of first set up of work equipment under this regime and random verification of putting to earth and protection against atmospherical discharge in all working activities; certification and acknowledgement of laboratories and certification bodies provided by European regulation and international agreements, as well as inspection and control of industries at risk of severe accidents in relation to specific activites. In the area of market control, the Institute performs controls, on behalf of the Ministry for Economic Development, of conformity to safety and health requirements for products used by workers; as Notified Body it issues, also through its local departments, declarations of conformity to the PED, TPED, SVP, ATEX European Directives. Research in the field of occupational safety is also carried on by Universities and ISS (Istituto Superiore di Sanità -National Health Institute).
UNI – National Italian Unification Body,– is a non-for-profit private association founded in 1921 and recognised by the State and the European Union; it studies, elaborates, approves and publishes the voluntary technical dispositions – the so-called “UNI standards” – in all industrial, commercial and service sectors (except the electrical and electrotechnical ones). UNI associates are enterprises, professionals, associations, public bodies, research centres and schools. UNI represents Italy at the European (CEN) and Worldwide (ISO) standard organisations. The purpose of this body is to define technical rules and standards to contribute to the improvement of efficiency and effectiveness of the Italian social and economical system, by supporting tools for technological innovation, competitiveness, promotion of trade, protection of consumers and environment, product and process quality.
Institutions and organisations
Table 2: Main OSH institutions and organisations in Italy
KEY ACTORS IN THE ITALIAN OSH DIALOGUE
KEY SOCIAL PARTNERS IN THE ITALIAN OSH FIELD
C.N.A - Confederazione nazionale dell'artigianato e delle piccole imprese 
C.A.S.A. - Confederazione autonoma sindacati artigiani 
C.I.A. - Confederazione italiana agricoltori 
C.L.A.A.I. - Confederazione delle libere associazioni artigiane italiane 
COLDIRETTI - Confederazione nazionale coltivatori diretti 
CONFAPI - Confederazione italiana piccola e media industria
CONFARTIGIANATO - Confederazione generale italiana dell'artigianato 
FEDERAL OSH AUTHORITIES AND INSPECTION SERVICES Abruzzo 
Friuli-Venezia Giulia 
Provincia Autonoma di Bolzano 
Provincia Autonoma di Trento 
Valle d'Aosta 
KEY COMPENSATION AND INSURANCE BODIES
KEY PREVENTION INSTITUTES
KEY PROFESSIONAL ASSOCIATIONS
AIAS - Associazione professionale Italiana Ambiente e Sicurezza. 
AIDII - Associazione italiana degli igienisti industriali 
AIE - Associazione Italiana di Epidemiologia 
AiFOS - Associazione Italiana Formatori alla Sicurezza 
AIRESPSA - Associazione Responsabili SPP Ambito Sanitario 
AIRM - Associazione Italiana Radioprotezione Medica 
AIRP - Associazione Italiana di Protezione contro le Radiazioni 
AITeP - Associazione Italiana Tecnici Prevenzione nell'Ambiente e Luoghi di Lavoro 
AMBLAV - Associazione Ambiente e Lavoro 
ANIS - Associazione Nazionale Ingegneria della Sicurezza 
ANMA - Associazione Nazionale Medici di Azienda e Competenti 
ANMeLP - Associazione Nazionale Medici del Lavoro Pubblici 
ANPEQ - Associazione Nazionale Professionale tra Esperti Qualificati in Radioprotezione 
SIE - Società Italiana di Ergonomia 
SIML- Società Italiana di Medicina del Lavoro 
SNOP - Società Nazionale Operatori della Prevenzione 
CIIP – Consulta Interassociativa Italiana per la Prevenzione 
KEY RESEARCH INSTITUTES
Ministero dell'Istruzione dell'Università e della Ricerca 
ISS (Istituto superiore di sanità)
KEY NORMALISATION ACTOR
UNI- Ente Nazionale italiano di Unificazione 
(Source: Overview by the authors)
- Legislative decree no. 626, 19 September 1994, Implementation of Directive 89/391/EEC, 89/654/EEC, 89/655/EEC, 89/656/EEC, 90/269/EEC, 90/270/EEC, 90/394/EEC e 90/679/EEC on the improvement of safety and health of workers at the workplace. Retrieved on 13 June 2012 from: 
- Legislative decree no. 81, April 9th 2008, Implementation of the Article 1 of the Act no. 123, August 3rd, 2007, concerning the protection of health and safety at workplaces (Italian). Retrieved on 18 June 2012 from: 
- Legislative decree no. 106, 3 August, 2009, Supplementary and corrective disposition to the legislative decree no. 81, April 9th 2008, concerning the protection of health and safety at workplaces (Italian). Retrieved on 13 June 2012 from:
- Council Directive 89/391/EEC of 12 June 1989 on the introduction of measures to encourage improvements in the safety and health of workers at work, OJ L 183, 29.6.1989, p. 1–8. Available at:  Retrieved on 18 June 2012 from: 
- Council Directive 89/654/EEC of 30 November 1989 concerning the minimum safety and health requirements for the workplace (first individual directive within the meaning of Article 16 (1) of Directive 89/391/EEC) Retrieved on 20 June 2012 from: 
- Council Directive 95/63/EC of 5 December 1995 amending Directive 89/655/EEC concerning the minimum safety and health requirements for the use of work equipment by workers at work (second individual Directive within the meaning of Article 16 (1) of Directive 89/391/EEC), Retrieved on 19 June 2012 from: 
- Council Directive 95/63/EC of 5 December 1995 amending Directive 89/655/EEC concerning the minimum safety and health requirements for the use of work equipment by workers at work (second individual Directive within the meaning of Article 16 (1) of Directive 89/391/EEC), Retrieved on 19 June 2012, from: 
- Directive 90/269/EEC on manual handling of loads of 29 May 1990 on the minimum health and safety requirements for the manual handling of loads where there is a risk particularly of back injury to workers (fourth individual Directive within the meaning of Article 16 (1) of Directive 89/391/EEC) Retrieved on 20 June 2012, from:
- Directive 90/270/EEC - display screen equipment of 29 May 1990 on the minimum safety and health requirements for work with display screen equipment (fifth individual Directive within the meaning of Article 16 (1) of Directive 89/391/EEC). Retrieved on 20 June 2012, from:
- Council Directive 1999/38/EC of 29 April 1999 amending for the second time Directive 90/394/EEC on the protection of workers from the risks related to exposure to carcinogens at work and extending it to mutagens. Retrieved on 20 June 2012, from: 
- Council Directive of 26 November 1990 on the protection of workers from risks related to exposure to biological agents at work (seventh individual Directive within the meaning of Article 16 (1) of Directive 89/391/EEC) (90/679/EEC). Retrieved on 20 June 2012, from:
- Directive 98/24/EC - risks related to chemical agents at work of 7 April 1998 on the protection of the health and safety of workers from the risks related to chemical agents at work (fourteenth individual Directive within the meaning of Article 16(1) of Directive 89/391/EEC). Retrieved on 20 June 2012, from: 
- Directive 1999/92/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 16 December 1999 on minimum requirements for improving the safety and health protection of workers potentially at risk from explosive atmospheres (15th individual Directive within the meaning of Article 16(1) of Directive 89/391/EEC). Retrieved on 20 June 2012, from: 
- Directive 2003/10/EC - noise of 6 February 2003 on the minimum health and safety requirements regarding the exposure of workers to the risks arising from physical agents (noise) (Seventeenth individual Directive within the meaning of Article 16(1) of Directive 89/391/EEC). Retrieved on 20 June 2012, from: 
- Directive 2003/18/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 27 March 2003 amending Council Directive 83/477/EEC on the protection of workers from the risks related to exposure to asbestos at work. Retrieved on 20 June 2012, from:
- Directive 2004/40/EC - electromagnetic fields and waves of 29 April 2004 on the minimum health and safety requirements regarding the exposure of the workers to risks arising from electromagnetic fields and waves (18th individual directive within the meaning of Art. 16(1) of directive 89/391/EEC) as amended by directive 2012/11/EU of 19 April 2012 extending the deadline for transposition to 31 October 2013. Retrieved on 20 June 2012, from:
- The agreement ratified on 26 January, 2006, at the Permanent Conference for relations among the State, Regions and the Trento and Bozen Provinces Retrieved on September 3rd 2012 from: 
- Legislative decree no. 195, 23 June, 2003, Modifications and integrations to legislative decree no. 626, 19 September 1994, for the identification of the professional abilities and requirements for operators and persons in charge of prevention and protection services, according to Article 21 of the Act no. 39, 1 March, 2002 [Italian]. Retrieved on 20 june 2012 from: 
- The agreement ratified on 26 January, 2006, at the Permanent Conference for relations among the State, Regions and the Trento and Bozen Provinces Retrieved on September 3rd 2012 from: 
- Italian Workers' Compensation Authority - Istituto Nazionale per l’assicurazione contro gli infortuni sul lavoro, NAIL) availble at: 
- Act no. 122, 30 July, 2010,Conversion in Law, with modifications, of the legislative decree no. 78, 31 May 2010, apporting urgent provisions in the fields of financial stabilisation and economic competitiveness. Retrieved on 13 june 2012 from: