OSH system at national level - Portugal

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José Miquel Cabeças, DEMI, Portugal


Occupational safety and health legislative framework

Occupational safety and health (OSH) at work is covered by the Law No. 102/2009 of 10 September 2009 as amended and republished by Law No. 3/2014 of 28 January and successive amendments [1]. This law establishes the legal regime provided for by Law No. 7/2009 of 12 February 2009 on the approval of the revision of the Labour Code to the private sector [2] and by Law No. 35/2014 of 20 June 2014 on the general labour law in public functions (and to the public sector) [3].

The Law No. 102/2009 of 10 September 2009 as amended and republished by Law No. 3/2014 of 28 January and successive amendments [1] transposes into Portuguese law the framework Council Directive 89/391/EEC of 12 June 1989 [4] on the introduction of measures to encourage improvements in the safety and health of workers at work.

These Laws also regulates:

a) The protection of pregnant, postpartum or breastfeeding workers in the case of activities which involve specific risk of exposure to agents, processes or working conditions, in accordance with the provisions of paragraphs 6 of Article 62 of the Labour Code [2];

b) The protection of underage workers in the case of which by its nature or the circumstances in which they are provided, are harmful to their physical, mental and moral health, in accordance with the provisions of paragraphs 6 of article 72 of the Labour Code [2].

The Law No. 102/2009 of 10 September 2009 as amended and republished by Law No. 3/2014 of 28 January and successive amendments complements the transposition of the following directives: Directive 91/383/EEC of 25 June 1991; Directive 92/85/EEC of 19 October 1992; Directive 94/33/EC of 22 June 1994; Directive 90/394/EEC. These laws applies to all branches of activities in the private, public and social or cooperative sectors, to employees and employers, including non-profit organisations, and to self-employed workers.

According to the legislation, each employer must operate a health and safety policy based on general principles of prevention (preventing risks, eliminating these at source or reducing these; with a priority to collective protective rather than individual measures; providing training and information for employees). This policy should be integrated into the company’s general management policy.

In the organisation of the health and safety at work services, the employer may choose one of the following modalities: internal service, inter-company service or external service. The organisation and the functioning of the health and safety activities are defined by law [1].

According to the legislation, the implementation of prevention measures must be preceded by risk assessment procedures, associated to the various stages of the production process, including preparatory activities, maintenance and repair, in order to obtain effective levels of protection for the safety and health of workers.


Main legislative acts:

  • Government Decree No. 1/85 of 16 January 1985 on the approval for ratification the Convention No. 155 on the safety, health of workers and the working environment, adopted by the International Labour Conference at its 67th session [5].
  • Law No. 7/2009 de 12 de February on the approval of the revision of the Labour Code , amended by Law No. 105/2009 of 14 September 2009, by Law No. 53/2011 of 14 October 2014, by Law No. 23/2012 of 25 June 2012, by Law No. 47/2012 of 29 August 2012, by Law No. 11/2013 of 28 January 2013, by Law No. 69/2013 of 30 August 2013, by Law No. 27/2014 of 8 May 2014, by Law No. 55/2014 of 25 August 2014, by Law No. 28/2015 of 14 April 2015, by Law No. 120/2015 of 1 September 2015, by Law No. 8/2016 of 1 April 2016, by Law No. 28/2016 of 23 August 2016, by Law No. 73/2017 of 16 August 2017, by Law No. 14/2018 of 19 March 2018 and by Law No. 93/2019 of 4 September 2019 [2].
  • Law No. 35/2014 of 20 June 2014, amended by Law No. 82-B/2014 of 31 December 2014, by Law No. 84/2015 of 7 August 2015, by Law No. 18/2016 of 20 June 2016, by Law No. 42/2016 of 28 December 2016, by Law No. 25/2017 of 30 May 2017, by Law No. 70/2017 of 14 August 2017, by Law No. 73/2017 of 16 August 2017, by Law No. 49/2018 of 14 August 2018, by Law No. 71/2018 of 31 December 2018, by Decree-law No. 6/2019 of 14 January 2019, by Law No. 79/2019 of 2 September 2019 and by Law No. 82/2019 of 2 September 2019, on the general labour law in public functions [3].
  • Law No. 102/2009 of 10 September 2009 as amended and republished by Law No. 3/2014 of 28 January, by Law No. 42/2012 of 28 August 2012, by Law No. 3/2014 of 28 January 2014, by Decree-law No. 88/2015 of 28 May 2015, by Law 146/2015 of 9 September 2015, by Law No. 28/2016 of 23 August 2016, by Law No. 79/2019 of 2 September 2019, and by Decree-law No. 20/2020 of 1 May 2020 on new legal rules governing the promotion of health and safety in the workplace [1].
  • Decree-law No. 347/93 of 1 October 1993, amended by Law No. 113/99 of 3 August 1999, transposing into national law Directive 89/654/EEC of the Council of 30 November 1989, on the minimum health and safety requirements in the workplace [6].
  • Law No. 42/2012 of 28 August 2012 on the access conditions and professional exercise of the specialist and the technician of hygiene and safety at work [7].
  • Decree-Law No. 301/2000 of 18 November 2000, amended by Decree-law No. 88/2015 of 28 May 2015, regulating the protection of workers against the risks related to exposure to carcinogens or mutagens at work [8].
  • Decree-Law No. 76/2007 of 17 July 2007, amending the list of occupational diseases and their coded content, approved by the Decree-Law No. 6/2001 of 5 May 2001 [9].
  • Decree-Law No. 330/93 of 25 September 1993, amended by Law No. 113/99 of 3 August 1999, transposing into national law Directive 90/269/CEE of the Council of 29 May 1990 on the minimum safety and health prescriptions in manual handling [10]
  • Decree-Law No. 46/2006 of 24 February 2006 transposing into national law Directive 2002/44/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 25 June 2002 on the minimum health and safety requirements regarding the exposure of workers to the risks arising from physical agents (vibration) [11].
  • Decree-Law No. 182/2006 of 6 September 2006 transposing into national law Directive 2003/10/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 6 February 2003 on the minimum health and safety requirements regarding the exposure of workers to the risks arising from physical agents (noise) [12].
  • Decree-Law 266/2007 of 24 July 2007 transposing into national law Directive 2003/18/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 27 March 2003 amending Council Directive 83/477/EEC on the protection of workers from the risks related to exposure to asbestos at work [13].
  • Decree-Law No. 24/2012 of 6 February 2012 consolidates the minimum requirements for the protection of workers against risks to safety and health due to exposure to chemical agents at work and transposes into national law Commission Directive 2009/161/EU of the European Parliament of 17 December 2009, on the protection of workers from the risks related to exposure to chemistry at work [14].
  • Decree-law No. 25/2010 of 30 August 2010, on the minimum requirements for the protection of workers against health and safety risks due to exposure, during work, to optical radiation from artificial sources, transposing Directive No. 2006/25 / EC, of the European Parliament and of the Council of 5 April 2006 [15].
  • Law No. 64/2017 of 7 August 2017 on the minimum requirements for the protection of workers against the risks to safety and health to which they are or may be subject due to exposure to electromagnetic fields at work and transposes Directive 2013/35 / EU of the European Parliament and Council, of 26 June 2013 (electromagnetic fields) [16].
  • Decree-law No. 108/2018 of 3 December 2018 on the legal regime for radiation protection, transposing Directive 2013/59 / Euratom of the European Parliament and Council, of 5 December 2013 [17].
  • Decree-law No. 84/97 of 16 April 1997 amended by Law No. 113/99 of 3 August 1999, transposing into national law Directives of the European Parliament and Council 90/679/EEC of 26 November, and 93/88/EEC, of 12 October, and Commission Directive 95/30/EC of 30 June 1995, on the protection of the safety and health of workers against the risks resulting from exposure to biological agents at work [18].

National strategy and programmes

The National Strategy for Health and Safety at Work 2015-2020 - Estratégia Nacional para a Segurança e Saúde no Trabalho 2015 -2020 - "Por um trabalho seguro, saudável e produtivo" (ENSST 2015-2020) [19] is the global framework for the policy of preventing occupational risks and the promotion of well-being at work, for the 2015-2020 time frame. It follows the National strategy on Health and Safety at Work ENSST 2008-2012 [20] and constitutes the Portuguese initiative of the Commission Communication Improving quality and productivity at work: Community strategy 2007-2012 on health and safety at work [21]. The strategy states the Portuguese commitment to comply and contribute to the EU strategy and the occupational safety and health (OSH) objectives at national level.

The former ENSST 2008-2012 defined two main axes for developing occupational safety and health as well as ten objectives with associated measures. The main axes were:

  1. Oriented to the public policies: development of coherent and effective public policies, arising from cooperative and collaborative efforts by the various public service agencies involved. These policies served to mobilize society to focus on a social and economic factor fundamental for social cohesion and that affects society as a whole;
  2. Oriented to the promotion of health and safety in the workplace, as a precondition for an effective improvement of working conditions.


The general objective of the current ENSST 2015-2020 is to promote effective and efficient systems for the prevention of occupational risks in companies, improving workers safety and health conditions and work productivity.


The current ENSST 2015-2020 defines three strategic objectives:

1. To promote the quality of working life and the competitiveness of companies, special focus is put on promotion of:

  • A culture for prevention;
  • Consultation and active participation of the workers in the process of improving the work organisation;
  • The adoption of measures aimed to improve well-being at work, adapting work to the individual and ensuring its compatibility with family life;
  • The workers physical and mental health;
  • Health monitoring.

2. To reduce the number of work accidents by 30% and it incidence rate of by 30%; the Strategy gives priority to the following sectors, according to their accidents history:

  • Manufacturing;
  • Construction;
  • Wholesale and retail;
  • Accommodation services;
  • Food and beverage service activities;
  • Administrative services;
  • Ancillary services and human health and social work services.

3. Reduce the hazard factors associated with occupational diseases.

The ENSST 2015-2020 defines six specific objectives with corresponding measures, targets, indicators and entities to be involved (a total of 31 measures, see table 1):

  1. To develop and implement public policies of health and safety at work;
  2. To improve the prevention of occupational diseases and work accidents;
  3. To support companies in the implementation of health and safety at work, particularly micro, small and medium-sized companies;
  4. To promote information, training, participation and cooperation at the workplace;
  5. To promote compliance with health and safety at work legislation;
  6. To strengthen international cooperation on health and safety at work


Table 1: Details of the activity plan

Objective Measures
1. To develop and implement public policies of health and safety at work. Measure 1 - To promote the inclusion of health and safety at work as a learning subject, in all levels of education, including permanent awareness campaigns throughout schooling.

Measure 2 - To promote the training of the educative community, including teaching and non-teaching staff on health and safety at work, ensuring, whenever possible, that training courses in this field are accredited for professional development purposes.
Measure 3 - To develop preventive actions aimed at specific targets, namely the following categories of workers: young; over 55 years old; women; civil servants; fixed-term contracted; temporary; part-time; teleworkers; self- employed; migrants; disabled; with chronic medical conditions.
Measure 4 - To complete the national survey of work conditions.
Measure 5 - To assess and promote the health and safety at work system in the public administration.
Measure 6 - To invest in partnerships with the media and in the communication of messages on social network about health and safety at work.
Measure 7 - To promote partnerships between public and private institutions and research entities in the context of health and safety at work, as well as develop and disseminate research projects in areas identified as priorities within health and safety at work aimed at workplaces.
Measure 8 - Publication of regulations and safety at work standards for construction sites.
Measure 9 - Publication of the rules for carrying out duties related to safety coordination in construction.

2. To improve the prevention of occupational diseases and work accidents. Measure 10 - To institutionalise social dialogue with the creation of sector-based forums for construction, manufacturing, agriculture and transport to analyse accident rates, identify specific needs and adopt specific measures aimed at these sectors.

Measure 11 - To develop a prevention and awareness campaign for industrial accidents at work and occupational diseases and their redress, including information on technical support for rehabilitation and professional reintegration.
Measure 12 - To promote the setting-up of joint committees for major construction and public works projects.
Measure 13 - To develop preventive activities for specific hazards such as chemical, psychosocial, nano-technologies, biological and musculoskeletal disorders.
Measure 14 - To create a common and integrated information system for work accidents and occupational diseases, in order to ensure reliable information processing, including those involving public employees and private sector employeer.
Measure 15 - To promote the production and analysis of statistics related to occupatis<bonal diseases.
Measure 16 - To assess the impact of the organisation model of health and safety services at work on the improvement in health and safety conditions at work

3. To support companies in the implementation of health and safety at work, particularly micro, small and medium-sized enterprises. Measure 17 - To disseminate information on the forms of organisation of health and safety at work services best suited to their size/activity/risk.

Measure 18 – To streamline the intervention of the Authority for Working Conditions prevention experts in the workplaces, in coordination with health and safety at work services and other prevention agents.
Measure 19 - To identify and promote information sharing and good practices in health and safety at work.
Measure 20 - Production and dissemination of simple documents adapted to each sector, as well as law enforcement tools for health and safety at work

4. To promote information, training, participation and cooperation at the workplace. Measure 21 - To organise training/awareness/information activities for employers and workers on health and safety at work.

Measure 22 - To provide online self-assessment tools.
Measure 23 - To promote the integration and adaptation of training offer on health and safety at work aimed at specific sectors of activity in the National Qualifications Catalogue, as well as the development of health and safety at work training courses

5. To promote compliance with health and safety at work legislation. Measure 24 - To assemble and provide support kits for new employers on their main labour and health and safety at work obligations.

Measure 25 - To follow up and monitor the activity of external services, in both safety at work and health at work.
Measure 26 - To follow up and monitor the activity of certified health and safety at work training providers.
Measure 27 - Assessment of the resources and activities developed in terms of internal and common health and safety at work services.
Measure 28 - To promote compliance with health and safety at work requirements by all parties in the hiring chain.
Measure 29 - To ensure the improvement in working conditions through the continuous adaptation of human, logistics and technical resources, from the Authority for Working Conditions.

6. To strengthen international cooperation on health and safety at work. Measure 30 - To carry out cooperation activities on health and safety at work.

Measure 31 - To promote exchanges activities between Portuguese and other countries experts

ENSST 2015 – 2020 will be monitored on three occasions:

  • Initial assessment – before the end of 2016;
  • Interim assessment – before the end of 2018;
  • Final assessment – after 31 May 2022.

Social dialogue

Portugal has a system of social dialogue at all levels (national, sectoral and company) and in the different socio-economic fields such as socioeconomic development policies and legislation projects concerning social and labour matters, namely labour law social dialogue.

Social dialogue at national level

Social dialogue at national level takes place in the negotiation and joint consultation committees, which are composed of government representatives and the representative trade union organisations. The Economic and Social Council (CES - Conselho Económico e Social) [22] is a constitutional body for consultation and social agreement. Its main goals are to promote the participation of economic and social agents in decision-making procedures of the organs of sovereignty, within the scope of socioeconomic issues. It is the space for dialogue between the Government, Social Partners and remaining representatives of an organised civil society par excellence.

The Constitution of the Portuguese Republic (Article 92) grants the CES two types of competencies, one consultative and the other of social agreement. Its consultation competencies are based on the participation of the most representative organisations in Portuguese society and economic agents and are carried out by drafting opinions, requested by the Government or other organs of sovereignty, or upon its own initiative. Within the scope of this competency, the CES expresses its opinion about the drafts of the programs and policies for social and economic development, Portugal’s positioning within the European institutions with regard to these policies, the use of European funds at national level and the regional development policy.

The competency for social agreement aims to foster social dialogue and negotiation between the Government and Social Partners – trade unions and employer associations – and is exercised based on tri-party negotiations with representatives of such bodies, during which legislation projects are appraised with regard to social and labour matters, for which social agreements are then entered into [22].

The Social Partners, i.e. Government, employer associations and trade unions are part of the Standing Committee on Social Agreement (CPCS - Comissão Permanente de Concertação Social), whose main task is to foster dialogue and social concentration to enter into agreements [23]. The work at the CPCS is carried out in several phases, namely the proposal and scheduling of the issues to be handled and the definition of the most suited methodology for analysis based on a work line (annual or by legislature), which is accepted by all members. Employment policies, vocational training, social welfare, tax and public administration policies are included among the matters to be discussed.

The composition of the Standing Committee on Social Concentration is composed by government members, trade union members and employer association’s members [23]. The board is responsible for issuing an opinion within their competence, on the plan and report on activities, the budget, the annual report and accounts, action programs and regulations, quality policy and the policy of human resource training.

The Advisory Council for the Promotion of Safety and Health at Work (CCPSST - Conselho Consultivo para a Promoção da Segurança e Saúde no Trabalho) [24] is an advisory council which is responsible to assist the Portuguese Authority for Working Conditions (ACT- Autoridade para as Condições do Trabalho) in carrying out their responsibilities for safety and health at work.

Its competence is to express their opinion on the health and safety at work promotion field of the Portuguese Authority for Working Conditions (ACT- Autoridade para as Condições do Trabalho), in the aspects not concerned with the inspection activity, on:

  • The activity plan and report;
  • The budget;
  • The annual report and accounts;
  • Action programs and regulations;
  • The quality policy;
  • The human resources training policy;
  • Other ACT management tools.

The opinions expressed by the Advisory Board on the activity plan and activity report, on the action programs and corresponding regulations and on the quality policy are binding in nature.

The union representatives and employers' confederations representatives in the Advisory Board may request information from the General-Labour Inspector on the organisation, structure and functioning of ACT services and may formulate proposals, suggestions or recommendations regarding ACT's activity.

Social dialogue at sectoral level

At the sectoral level there is no social dialogue structures oriented to occupational health and safety aspects. Collective negotiations at sectoral level between unions and employers contain some clauses concerning occupational health and safety (see for example the Collective Bargaining Agreement (CBA) in the Banking Sector [25]).

However, during the creation and development of sectorial campaigns on the prevention of occupational risks, unions and sectoral associations are involved, as well as the sectoral technological institutes

Social dialogue at enterprise level

The social dialogue at enterprise level may be based on company agreements with union representatives or based on health and safety commissions at company level. The company agreements are established between the managements of companies and union representatives, and contains clauses also addressed to occupational health and safety (see for example paragraph 17 in the company agreement between Caima - Indústria de Celulose, SA and the Union of Workers and Technicians of Services, Commerce, Restaurants and Tourism - SITESE) [26].

According to Law No. 102/2009 of 10 September 2009 as amended and republished by Law No. 3/2014 of 28 January and successive amendments [1], workers' representatives for safety and health at work shall be elected at company level by the workers, by direct and secret vote. Only lists submitted by unions that have represented workers in the company, or lists that have subscribed at least 20% of the workforce, can compete. Workers' representatives have a credit of five hours per month to perform their functions.

According to the same Law [1], it can be created occupational safety and health committees, by collective agreement, of equal composition. The occupational safety and health committees are constituted by workers' representatives for safety and health at work, according to the proportionality principle (see, for example, the Occupational Health and Safety Regulation in the Company agreement between Metropolitano de Lisboa, EPE and the Federation of Transport and Communications Unions - FECTRANS and others) [27].

Workers' representatives for safety and health at work have the right to meet with the administration of the company at least once a month, for discussion and analysis of issues related to occupational safety and health.

OSH infrastructure

There are several bodies responsible for OSH. The interconnections between them are essential to understand the OSH at national level.

OSH Infrastructure scheme

Figure 1: OSH infrastructure scheme in Portugal

OSH INFRASTRUCTURE SCHEME.jpg

Source: Overview by the author


National competent bodies

The Authority for Working Conditions (ACT- Autoridade para as Condições do Trabalho) [28] is responsible for promoting improved working conditions by ensuring compliance with labour regulations and working conditions in the context of the private sector and compliance with working conditions in the public sector, and for promoting occupational risk prevention policies. The central services of ACT are located in , and decentralized services, spread over all districts of Portugal. The central services of ACT, are constituted by 3 service directorates and 3 divisions:

  1. Directorate of Support to the supervision (DSAAI);
  2. Directorate for the Promotion of Safety and Health at Work (DSPSST);
  3. Directorate for the Management Support (DSAG);
  4. International Relations Division (DRI);
  5. Information and Documentation Division (DID);
  6. Audit and Legal Affairs Division (DAAJ).

ACT has 32 decentralized regional services, covering the entire country.

The Regional Secretariat for Social Inclusion and Citizenship - Regional Directorate for Labour and Inspective Action (Secretaria Regional de Inclusão Social e Cidadania - Direção Regional do Trabalho e da Ação Inspetiva) [29] has the mission to contribute to the improvement of working conditions and to the agreement on labour relations within Autonomous Region of Madeira. The Regional Directorate has expertise in the area of labour, specifically in the areas of labour legislation, collective bargaining, professional organisations, assessment of working conditions, safety and health at work, labour statistics, and more recently the voluntary resolution of work conflicts.

The Regional Labour Inspection of the Regional Government of the Azores (Inspeção Regional do Trabalho do Governo Regional dos Açores) [30] has the mission to develop advisory methods and action and to perform inspections in companies and other organisations, with the fundamental aim of improving working conditions.

The Directorate-General for Employment and Labour Relations (DGERT- Direcção-Geral do Emprego e das Relações de Trabalho) [31] mission is to support the design of employment policies, professional training, coordinate the system of regulation of professions and the recognition of professional qualifications; certification of training providers, industrial relations and working conditions, including safety and health at work, promotion of social dialogue, monitoring of industrial relations and promotion of collective bargaining. DGERT aims to consolidate itself as a reference entity in the monitoring of industrial relations and in the prevention of collective labour conflicts, in supporting the definition of public policies in the areas of labour relations and conditions, employment and professional training.

The Portuguese Labour Mediation Service (SML - Sistema de Mediação Laboral) [32] is a service provided by the Ministry of Justice, allowing workers and employers to settle disputes at work using mediation. The SML has the power to mediate disputes arising in the context of employment contracts. The employer and employee can, voluntarily and through a joint decision, refer the dispute to mediation.

As employers, businesses must register with the social security authorities (Segurança Social) [33] when the business is set up. Businesses must also register each employee by the end of the month after the one in which they start work. The information must be provided to the Authority for Working Conditions (ACT) [28]. Whenever a serious or fatal accident occurs at work, the employer must inform the ACT within 24 hours of the event.

The Division of Environmental and Occupational Health (DSAO - Divisão de Saúde Ambiental e Ocupacional) [34] from the Directorate General of Health (DGS – Direção Geral de Saúde) has responsibilities to propose strategies and specific programs for evaluation coordination and collaboration in the management of risk to human health in several areas, particularly water, the built spaces, waste, chemical and biological substances, genetically modified organisms and ionizing and non-ionizing; for monitoring, technical advice and licensing facilities, equipment and chemical and biological substances in accordance with law; to propose strategies, coordinate activities and ensure programs within the occupational health; to propose strategies and coordinate programs and activities ensuring accidents prevention.

The Protection against Occupational Hazards Department (DPRP - Departamento de Proteção contra os Riscos Profissionais) [35], is the service of the Social Security Institute (Instituto de Segurança Social, I.P.), nationwide responsible for managing the treatment and recovery from illness or disability arising from occupational hazards. According to Ordinance No. 135/2012 of 8 May 2012 [36] the competences of DPRP at company level, are as follows:

  • To evaluate and determine the disability of injury, functional disturbance or disease arising from occupational hazards;
  • To ensure the provision of medical care to treat disease or disability resulting from occupational hazards;
  • To pay compensation for temporary disability and permanent disability pensions;
  • To promote clinical recovery and professional reclassification of beneficiaries with an occupational disease;
  • To promote the placement of rehabilitated workers in occupations compatible with his physical condition and ability to work.

Whenever the attending physician suspects that the worker / patient has an occupational disease or that there is an aggravation, he must complete a mandatory participation form that must be sent to the Department of Protection against Professional Risks (DPRP) [35] of the Social Security Institute, I.P., to proceed with its confirmation, within the scope of the professional disease certification process. It should be noted that the participation of suspected / aggravated occupational diseases is the responsibility of all physicians, although the worker's occupational physician is the one who usually gathers more information to proceed to mandatory participation.

The Institute of Support to Small and Medium Companies and Innovation (IAPMEI - Instituto de Apoio às Pequenas e Médias Empresas e à Inovação) [37] has different responsibilities, particularly under the authorization of installation and modification of retail establishments and commercial complexes as well as industrial establishments (industrial and services licensing). However, the industrial licensing processes of establishments associated with the extractive industry as well as the licensing processes for quarries, among others, are the responsibility of the Directorate-General for Energy and Geology (DGEG – Direção-Geral de Energia e Geologia) [38].

The Portuguese Data Protection Authority (CNPD – Comissão Nacional de Protecção de Dados) [39] is endowed with the power to supervise and monitor compliance with the laws and regulations in the area of personal data protection. The CNPD has an important role in the processing of personal data for the purpose of preventive and curative medicine under the control of psychoactive substances made to workers (alcohol and drugs abuse).

The Strategy and Planning Office (GEP - Gabinete de Estratégia e Planeamento) [40] produces statistical information, particularly concerning occupational accidents. The statistics information results from the collection and processing of accidents participation (reports) and maps sent monthly to the GEP by insurance companies and companies with financial capacity to cover accidents risks.


OSH services

Regardless of size, every company must have an internal structure that ensures the activities of first aid, firefighting and rescue of employees in situations of imminent danger; employees must be nominated as responsible for these activities. The Labour Code [2] requires employers to organize activities related to safety and health at work as an important dimension of prevention and reparation of at-work accidents and occupational diseases. From 2010 onwards, the reporting on the employers’ obligations, namely regarding safety and health at work, is included in the Annual Report (Relatório Único).

The organisation and the functioning of the safety and health activities are defined by law [1]:

  • Internal services - these are obligatory in companies with more than 400 employees, whatever the activity of the company is, or in companies developing high-risk activities to which at least 30 employees are exposed; internal services are part of the company structure and depend on the employer; it is also considered an internal service provided by a service company to other group companies since that the companies are in a controlling or group;
  • External services – companies which do not have the characteristics mentioned above may hire other entities for the provision of external services of safety and health; one worker with adequate training must be nominated by the employer to represent him/her for this purpose ; the constitution of external services companies is defined by law and requires the authorization of the Authority for Working Conditions  (ACT- Autoridade para as Condições doTrabalho) [28], and the authorization of Directorate General of Health (DGS – Direção Geral de Saúde);
  • Employer / nominated worker in a company with up to 10 employees and whose activities are not of high risk, safety and health activities can be carried out directly by the employer or by one or more nominated employees who should be provided adequate training and necessary resources for this purpose;
  • Inter-company services (serviços comuns) are established by agreement between several companies or establishments belonging to companies who are not in a group relationship; the agreement for the establishment of an Inter-company services should written and must be authorized according to Law No. 102/2009 of 10 September 2009 as amended and republished by Law No. 3/2014 of 28 January and successive amendments [1]; the application for the authorization must be accompanied, by the opinion of the representatives of workers to safety and health at work or, failing that, by the workers themselves.

Safety and health at work committees, with a balanced composition, may be created by collective bargaining instruments. This committee is composed by the elected workers’ representatives for safety and health at work and the employer or employer representatives. The number of elected workers varies according to the company size. The power of these committees is usually framed by the framework directive; however, in exceptional cases, foreseen by company agreement, their power may exceed the framework directive.

The employees' representatives are elected by direct secret vote of workers, according to the principle of representation by the Hondt method. Their number depends on company size [1].

Compensation and insurance bodies

Law No. 98/2009 of 4 September 2009 and successive amendments [41] specifies the new legal regime of labour accidents and occupational diseases, under the terms of Article 284 of the Portuguese Labour Code [2]. Law No. 98/2009 [41] also determines the regulation of professional rehabilitation and reintegration. The benefits granted in the case of accidents at work are similar to those granted in the case of occupational diseases, even though the responsibility for their provision lies with different institutions.

Occupational accidents protection

The occupational accident insurance is covered by private insurers. This system is an important aspect of social security given that it is compulsory for each employer. The employer is obliged to insure his or her employees against the risk of accidents at work. Accident insurance is compulsory for employers in the private sectors, trainees and persons in apprenticeship.

As a general rule, the responsibility is transferred to an insurance company, since the social security schemes do not cover this risk. Self-employed persons are also required to subscribe an insurance plan covering accidents at work.

For an accident to be considered an accident at work, it must normally: occur in the workplace and during working hours, causes a bodily injury, functional disorders or disturbances, or result in a disease leading to death or to a temporary or permanent, partial or total reduction in the person’s working or earning capacity. Also an accident that occurred on the way to or from the workplace may be considered an accident at work.

The Portuguese Association of Insurance Companies (APS – Associação Portuguesa de Seguradores) [42] is a non-profit employers’ association of the insurance and reinsurance companies operating in the Portuguese market. The Insurance and Pension Funds Supervisory Authority (ISP – Instituto de Seguros de Portugal) [43] aims to ensure the proper functioning of the insurance and pension funds in Portugal, in order to contribute to ensuring the protection of policy holders, insured persons, participants and beneficiaries. The Workers’ Compensation Fund (FAT -  Fundo de Acidentes de Trabalho) is under the dependence of the ISP [43].

From January 2000 insurance for work-related accidents and occupational is obligatory for Portugal's self-employed. It is required to self-employed workers to carry insurance against accidents and illnesses. As provided for in article 1 of Decree-law No. 159/99 of 11 May 1999 and successive amendments [44], workers who are self-employed or who work as "independents" must carry insurance that will guarantee the minimum payments laid down in that law and in succeeding legislation. The aim is that self-employed people and their families will be able to receive the same compensation and payments to which other workers are entitled in the event of a work-related accident or illness.

Occupational diseases protection

The general social security scheme does, however, cover workers against occupational diseases. An occupational disease is a disease included in the National List of Occupational Diseases that affects a worker who has been exposed to professional risks due to its professional activity or working conditions. Occupational diseases may occur following exposure to a risk related to the nature of the activity or the ordinary workplace. The disease can arise within a certain timeframe, which is indicated in the official list of occupational diseases. In addition to that, it can be argued and proved on a case-by-case basis that a disease is work-related, even if it is not on the list (mixed system of defining occupational disease) [45].

Benefits are guaranteed in cases of body injury, functional disorder or disease not included in the List, as long as it may be proved that this disease is related to the professional activity pursued in normal working conditions. An occupational disease is legally recognized when a medical committee of The Protection against Occupational Hazards Department (DPRP - Departamento de Proteção contra os Riscos Profissionais) [35] certifies that the worker has contracted it. Employers covered by the general Social Security scheme and also self-employed persons are entitled to benefits. The diagnosis and evaluation of the incapacity degree resulting from an Occupational Disease, as well as the benefits, are the exclusive responsibility of the National Centre for the Protection against Occupational Risks. The Table on Incapacities due to Accidents at Work and Occupational Diseases (TNI - Tabela Nacional de Incapacidades) [46] is to provide the basis for assessment of functional impairment suffered as a result of work accidents and occupational diseases, when a loss of earning capacity exists.

The remuneration of occupational diseases is in the hands of The Protection against Occupational Hazards Department (DPRP - Departamento de Proteção contra os Riscos Profissionais) [35]. The DPRP has to main working tools: the National List of Occupational Diseases [47] and the National Table on Incapacities due to Accidents at Work and Occupational Diseases [46].

As a general rule, occupational healthcare is provided through reimbursement of costs incurred.

Medical care can also be provided by the National Health Service (SNS - Serviço Nacional de Saúde) [48]. Sickness cash benefit can also be granted during medical treatment and occupational rehabilitation. The level of permanent incapacity is indicated in the Table on Incapacities due to Accidents at Work and Occupational Diseases (TNI - Tabela Nacional de Incapacidades) [46].

The employer is under obligation to integrate a worker suffering from temporary partial incapacity or from permanent, partial or total incapacity for regular work as a result of an employment injury or an occupational disease. Such workers are also entitled to vocational training, adaptation of the workplace, part-time work and leave for retraining or for finding another job. In addition, they are entitled to a working allowance for attending professional rehabilitation activities, corresponding to the expenses incurred. In the case of courses organised by a body other than the Institute for Employment and Professional Training (IEFP - Instituto de Emprego e Formação Profissional) [49], the amount of the working allowance is limited.

The Supplementary care benefit (Subsídio por assistência de 3ª pessoa) [50] is provided to severely disabled pensioners who require constant attendance. A housing adaptation allowance can be paid in the case of permanent incapacity.

In the case of the death of the insured person, due to an accident at work or occupational disease, family members can be entitled to a survivor’s pension. A death grant (Subsídio por morte) [51] is also paid. Reimbursement of funeral expenses (Subsídio por despesas de funeral) [52] is provided up to a certain amount. In the case of an accident at work, the courts can grant damages to the injured party or his legal heirs.

The Fisherman's Mutual is an insurance company that began operations in 1942 in the fishing industry and became the largest association of Portuguese maritime sector, with about 16,000 members. The Fisherman's Mutual are experts and leaders in the insurance professional fishing in Portugal. The fisherman´s insurance is unique in the insurance industry to cover the fisheries workers. The risks covered include occupational accidents, loss of wages and loss of assets [53].

Professional associations

The occupational health physician must have a graduation in this area and be registered in the Specialty College of Occupational Medicine of the Portuguese Medical Association (Colégio de Medicina do Trabalho - Ordem dos Médicos) [54]. It is also recognized as legal practitioners in this field those doctors that fulfil some criteria specified in the law.

The Portuguese Society of Occupational Medicine (Sociedade Portuguesa de Medicina do Trabalho) [55] guides their action in order to foster a sense of college and stimulate scientific and technical knowledge, professional specialty, fostering regular exchanges with similar organisations, the organisation of scientific sessions, study and research in the area of intervention of its own.

The Portuguese Association for Prevention and Safety Technicians (APTPS - Associação Portuguesa de Técnicos de Prevenção e Segurança) [56] has the objective to study, improve and promote the principles, methods and techniques specific to the health and safety function, for the professional members development, in the companies and agencies.

The Portuguese Society of Occupational Safety and Hygiene (SPOSHO - Sociedade Portuguesa de Segurança e Higiene Ocupacionais) [57] has the objective to promote a forum for discussion of the different areas of OHS; to provide the means for developing training or other actions in areas considered relevant; to provide a space for the defence of common interests of occupational technicians, supporting initiatives at national and international level in the direction of those interests; to establish relationships with national and foreign scientific societies, including the European Network of Safety and Health Professionals Organisations (ENSHPO).

The National Association of Safety, Hygiene and Occupational Health Technicians (ATESHSAT - Associação Nacional dos Técnicos de Segurança Higiene e Saúde no Trabalho) [58] aims to defend the rights and legitimate interests of technicians, namely to promote, contribute, study, improve and disseminate, the principles, methods and techniques for the development of Safety, Hygiene and Health in Portugal.

The Portuguese Safety Association (APSEI – Associação Portuguesa de Segurança) [59], established in 2006, represents companies and professionals in fire safety, electronic security and health and safety at work, with the mission of representing companies and security professionals in order to boost the sustained growth of this sector in Portugal.

The Portuguese Association of Health, Hygiene and Safety at Work for International Development and Cooperation (APSHSTDC - Associação Portuguesa de Saúde, Higiene e Segurança no Trabalho para o Desenvolvimento e Cooperação Internacional) [60] is a Non-Governmental Organisation for Development and Cooperation, recognized as a Collective Person of Public Utility, by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Among other aspects, its mission is on the conception, execution and support of social, cultural, environmental, civic and economic programs and projects, namely through actions in developing countries, protection of human rights and peace and respect for the Universal Declaration of Human rights.

The Specialty in Safety Engineering of the Portuguese Engineering Association (Ordem dos Engenheiros – Engenharia de Segurança) [61] is a professional public association whose main mission is to contribute to the progress of engineering, stimulating the efforts of its associates in the scientific, professional and social domains, as well as compliance with the rules of professional ethics.

The Specialty in Safety Engineering of the Portuguese Technical Engineering Association (Ordem dos Engenheiros Técnicos – Colégio da especialidade em Engenharia de Segurança) [62] is a professional public association whose main mission is ensuring the social function, dignity and prestige of the profession of technical engineer, promoting the professional and scientific enhancement of its members and the defense and respect for the respective ethical principles.


Education, training and awareness raising

Legally required training for OSH specialists

The vocational training of workers is recognized as a right and as an asset for business. Legislation requires 10% of employees with permanent contracts to receive at least 35 hours of certified training per year (professional training is required, not necessarily occupational safety and health training).

According to Law No. 42/2012 of 28 August 2012 [7]  all training courses on safety and hygiene, levels 4 and 6, must be previously approved by the Authority for Working Conditions  (ACT- Autoridade para as Condições doTrabalho) [28], so that trainees may have a professional certification legally assigned to by this organism. Thus, all entities involved in this type of training should, before the start of training, submit their application process for approval to the ACT.

The prior approval of initial training courses for Level 4 Occupational Safety Technicians and for Level 6 Occupational Safety Technician is required. The approval of a training course aims to ensure that the course taught by a training organisation is appropriate for the acquisition or improvement of skills needed to practice as a Level 4 or Level 6 Occupational Safety Technician. The training course should be structured and developed in accordance with the legal training references contained in the Certification Manual [63], thus contributing to enhance the overall quality training and increase the transparency of the training market.

The professional certification in Level 4 and in Level 6 Occupational Safety Technician has the objective to ensure the implementation and development at the workplace of prevention and protection services against occupational risks within a framework of promoting the improvement of working conditions and adjustment to the economic competitiveness and technological change and meeting the requirements of the free movement of workers working in the area of safety and hygiene, within the European Union.

The professional certification is compulsory since August 30, 2000 for all individuals already working or intending to practice as a Level 4 and Level 6 Occupational Safety and Hygiene Technician, according to Law No. 42/2012 of 28 August 2012 [7]. Companies or organisations wishing to use the services of these professionals should ensure that the professionals are certified or have applied for certification within the National System of Professional Certification.

The training course for Level 4 Occupational Safety Technician must integrate the socio-cultural and scientific-technological components as well as a practical component to be implemented in the real work environment [63]. The minimum hours of each socio-cultural component are 20 hours. The duration of each scientific and technological fundamental content is 40 hours, with the exception of Occupational Hygiene and Occupational Safety with a minimum of 80 hours. The cultural components should have, in total, a minimum of 200 hours, the scientific and technological must have, in total, a minimum of 500 hours and practical component must have, a minimum of 500 hours:

  • 340 hours of practical training during the Scientific-Technological components and;
  • 160 hours of practical training in real work context, to be implemented at the end of the training process.

The fundamental content (disciplines) of the Level 4 Occupational Safety Technician course are the following one [63]: Organisation of work; Social Psychology of work; Information and communication; Education; Legislation, regulations and standards of safety, hygiene and health at work; Statistics and probabilities; Prevention management; Emergency Procedures; Evaluation and control of occupational hazards; Occupational Hygiene; Occupational Safety; Ergonomics.

The training course for Level 6 Occupational Safety Technician must integrate the fundamental content (disciplines) and a practical training component to be developed in a real work environment. The minimum number of hours of each fundamental content should be 20 hours, and 60 hours to Occupational Hygiene and Occupational Safety. The fundamental contents should be a minimum of 420 hours. The practical component in a real work environment must have a minimum of 120 hours to be developed at the end of the training process. The fundamental content (disciplines) of the Level 6 Occupational Safety and Health Technician course are the following one [63]: Statistics and reliability; Legislation, regulations and standards of safety, hygiene and health at work; Management of organisations; Management of prevention; Evaluation of occupational hazards; Control of occupational hazards; Organisation of the emergency; Occupational Hygiene; Occupational Safety; Ergonomics; Social Psychology of work; Technical information, communication and negotiation; Design and training management.

Training course to the employee designated by the employer:

In a company, establishment or group of establishments, up to 50 km distant from the larger establishment, employing up to nine workers and whose activity is not high risk, safety functions may be assumed directly by the employer, it representative or by an employee designated by him, provided he has the proper training. Thus the company may adopt an alternative to external services, a simplified mode of internal services (article 81 of Law No. 102/2009 of 10 September 2009 as amended and republished by Law No. 3/2014 of 28 January 2014 and successive amendments) [1].

For the training of the employer, it representative or by an employee designated by him the Portuguese Authority for Working Conditions (ACT – Autoridade para as Condições do Trabalho) [28] defined the minimum content of the training modules which serve as a reference for the design and implementation of training (by training entities) for these target audiences, in order to gain basic skills in occupational safety and hygiene, health, ergonomics, environment and work organisation. In this particular, ACT recognizes the training provider’s entities and supervises the curricular content.

Additional certified training courses

The courses for Adult Education and Training Courses (EFA - Cursos de Educação e Formação para Adultos) [64] aim to raise the levels of the academic and professional adult Portuguese population, through an integrated education and training that enhances their employability conditions and ensure the skills acquired throughout life. The training course for Junior Occupational Safety and Health Technician may be included in EFA courses.

With the entry into force of Law No. 42/2012 of 28 August 2012 [7], the Certificate of Professional Qualification (Título Profissional), renewal is not required. Certificate of Professional Qualification issued under the repealed law counts as professional basis for the profession to respect for all legal purposes, in accordance with Article 20 of Law No. 42/2012 [7]. The Portuguese Authority for Working Conditions (ACT – Autoridade para as Condições do Trabalho) in each 5-year period, suspends the professional title within the inspection activity, when the following requirements, of the Occupational Safety Technician responsibility, are not met: a) Scientific and technical update training frequency corresponding to a minimum of 30 hours; b) Scientific and technical update training frequency corresponding to a minimum of 100 hours when the professional has less than 2 years. The suspension of the Certificate of Professional Qualification ceases as soon as the professional certifies the frequency of training due under the above headings.


Awareness raising networks

Nominated by the EU-OSHA’s official representative in Portugal, the Portuguese focal point is typically the contributor to the implementation of the EU-OSHA’s safety and health at work programmes. The focal point manages the national network formed by the social partners, the technical and scientific community, the academic community, companies, local organisations and other elements. This network provides input to the EU-OSHA’s work and the mechanism to disseminate products and information to Portuguese stakeholders. In addition, the Portuguese focal point is active in the planning and implementation of EU-OSHA campaigns as well as nominating national experts to the agency’s groups and seminars and selecting the Portuguese candidates to the European good practice awards. The Portuguese Authority for Working Conditions (ACT – Autoridade para as Condições do Trabalho) [28] is the Portuguese Focal Point.

The assistance provided by ILO – International Labour Organization (OIT – Organização Internacional do Trabalho) is largely based on technical advisory services, covering both policy and practical issues. The ILO also plays a leading role in the implementation of several important technical cooperation projects. The overarching objective of ILO assistance to is to anchor decent work firmly as a national goal and to contribute to its implementation through the Decent Work Country Programmes (DWCPs). The Portuguese office of ILO is located in Lisbon[65].

CIS - International Occupational Safety and Health Information Centre is the knowledge management arm of the ILO Programme on Safety and Health at Work and the Environment (SafeWork). The Authority for Working Conditions (ACT) is representative of the International Occupational Safety and Health Information Centre (CIS) of the International Labour Organisation, assuming the quality of CIS National Centre [66].


Specialized technical, medical and scientific institutions

Research institutes

Portugal does not run a national OSH research institute. Research in the field of safety and health at work is mainly carried out by research groups at universities and also at technology centres, which often have projects in collaboration with universities. There is a national network that encompasses the eight existing technology centres, promoting the cooperation among them. The Association of the Technological Centres of Portugal (RECET - Associação dos Centros Tecnológicos de Portugal, http://www.redeidt.com/pt/public/redeidt/membros_aderentes/recet/view) is constituted by the different technological centres, some of them particularly oriented to occupational safety and health prevention activities: the Technological Centre for Metal Industry (CATIM - Centro de Apoio Tecnológico à Indústria Metalomecânica, http://www.catim.pt/), the Technological Centre for the Textile and Clothing Industries of Portugal (CITEVE - Centro Tecnológico das Indústrias Têxtil e do Vestuário de Portugal, http://www.citeve.pt/), the Technological Centre of Portugal Natural Stone (CEVALOR - Centro Tecnológico da Pedra Natural de Portugal, http://cevalor.pt/), the Technological Centre Ceramics and Glass (CTCV - Centro Tecnológico da Cerâmica e do Vidro, http://www.ctcv.pt/), the Technology Centre of Special Tooling and Molds (CENTIMFE - Centro Tecnológico de Moldes e Ferramentas Especiais, http://www.centimfe.com/centimfe/index_html), the ShoesTechnology Centre of Portugal (CTCP - Centro Tecnológico do Calçado de Portugal, http://www.ctcp.pt/), the Cork Technology Centre (CTCOR - Centro Tecnológico da Cortiça, http://www.ctcor.com/) and the Technological Centre of Leather Industries (CTIC - Centro Tecnológico das Indústrias do Couro, http://www.ctic.pt/).

Other private and public organisations developing OSH activitities may be referred (ISQ and INSA).

The Portuguese Welding Institute (ISQ – Instituto de Soldadura e Qualidade) [67] is a private and independent organisation, offering technical inspection, training and consultancy services, supported by research and development activities and by accredited laboratories.

The National Institute of Health Dr. Ricardo Jorge (INSA - Instituto Nacional de Saúde Dr. Ricardo Jorge) [68] is a central department of the Portuguese Ministry of Health, with scientific, technical, administrative and financial autonomy, depending directly from the Minister of Health. As the main laboratory of the Portuguese health system, INSA is a State Laboratory, incorporating the functions of national observatory and national reference laboratory in the Portuguese health sector. The Environmental Health Department develops activities on the environmental and occupational risk factors.

Standardization bodies

At present The Portuguese Quality Institute (IPQ – Instituto Portugues da Qualidade) [69] is the national organisation that manages and promotes the development of the Portuguese System for Quality (SQP - Sistema Português para a Qualidade), with its three sub-systems - Standardization, Metrology and Qualification. Therefore, IPQ is the Portuguese representative body in the quality field at international level, and keeps a close co-operation with its European counterparts. Within the SPQ framework, IPQ copes with the role of National Standardization Body (ONN), thus ensuring the co-ordination with European and International standardization bodies, and supervises the activity of the Central Laboratory of Metrology.

The Portuguese Institute of Accreditation, I.P. (IPAC - Instituto Português de Acreditação, I.P.) [70] is the national accreditation body, under the terms of Regulation (EC) No. 765/2008. Its mission is to develop the accreditation activity, recognizing the technical competence of conformity assessment bodies. It thus acts as a regulatory agent for testing and calibration laboratories, inspection bodies and certification bodies. IPAC is a member of EA - European cooperation for Accreditation, ILAC - International Laboratory Accreditation Cooperation and IAF - International Accreditation Forum, structures that bring together accreditation bodies at European and international level.

The Technological Centre for Ceramics and Glass (CTCV - Centro Tecnológico da Cerâmica e do Vidro) [71] is an Entity of the Scientific and Technological System, certified by CERTIF according to NP EN ISO 900. It’s laboratories are accredited by the Portuguese Institute of Accreditation, I.P. (IPAC - Instituto Português de Acreditação, I.P.) according to the standard NP EN ISO / IEC 17025. It is also a Sectorial Standardization Body recognized by the Portuguese Quality Institute (IPQ – Instituto Portugues da Qualidade) [69], with an active participation in National, European (CEN) and International (ISO) Standardization Technical Committees.


Institutions and organisations

The main OSH institutions and organisations in the Portuguese OSH system are the following:

Key actors in the Portuguese OSH dialogue

Key social partners in the Portuguese OSH field

Federal OSH authorities and inspection services

Professional organisations of OSH services

  • The Portuguese Association of Health, Hygiene and Safety at Work for International Development and Cooperation (APSHSTDC - Associação Portuguesa de Saúde, Higiene e Segurança no Trabalho para o Desenvolvimento e Cooperação Internacional): https://apshstdc.pt/
  • The Portuguese Association of Occupational Safety and Health Companies (APEMT – Associação Portuguesa de Empresas de Segurança e Saúde no Trabalho): http://www.apemt.com/
  • Association of Occupational Health and Safety Companies (AEST - Associação de Empresas de Saúde e Segurança no Trabalho): https://aest.pt/
  • The National Association of Labour Nurses (ANET - Associação Nacional dos Enfermeiros do Trabalho): https://anet-pt.webnode.pt/
  • National Association of Public Health Physicians (ANMSP - Associação Nacional dos Médicos de Saúde Pública): https://www.anmsp.pt/
  • The Portuguese Environmental Health Association (APSAi - Associação Portuguesa de Saúde Ambiental): http://apsai.pt/a-associacao
  • The Portuguese Safety Association (APSEI – Associação Portuguesa de Segurança): https://www.apsei.org.pt/homepage/
  • The Portuguese Association of Prevention and Safety Technicians (APTPS - Associação Portuguesa de Técnicos de Prevenção e Segurança): https://pt-pt.facebook.com/aptps1975/

Key compensation and insurance bodies

Key professional associations

Key normalization institution

Research and Technical OSH related institutes

Links for further reading

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 Law No. 102/2009 of 10 September 2009 as amended and republished by Law No. 3/2014 of 28 January 2014 and successive amendments on new legal rules governing the promotion of health and safety in the workplace. Diário da República, Part I-A of 10 September 2009, No. 176. Retrieved on 11 June 2020, from: https://dre.pt/web/guest/legislacao-consolidada/-/lc/56365341/view?p_p_state=maximized
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 Law No. 7/2009 of 12 February, on the approval of the revision of the Labour Code. Diário da República, Série I of 12 February 2009, No. 30/2009. Retrieved on 11 June 2020, from: https://dre.pt/web/guest/legislacao-consolidada/-/lc/123915628/202001071942/exportPdf/normal/1/cacheLevelPage?_LegislacaoConsolidada_WAR_drefrontofficeportlet_rp=indice
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  26. Company Agreement No. 208/2019 of 1 July 2009 on the company agreement between Caima - Indústria de Celulose, SA and the Union of Workers and Technicians of Services, Commerce, Restaurants and Tourism - SITESE (acordo de empresa entre a Caima - Indústria de Celulose, SA e o Sindicato dos Trabalhadores e Técnicos de Serviços, Comércio, Restauração e Turismo – SITESE). Diário da República, Company agreement No. 208/2019 of 1 July 2009. Retrieved on 11 June 2020, from: https://dre.pt/web/guest/pesquisa/-/search/122881178/details/normal?p_p_auth=6YpDu38c
  27. Company agreement between Metropolitano de Lisboa, EPE and the Federation of Transport and Communications Unions - FECTRANS and others (acordo de empresa entre o Metropolitano de Lisboa, EPE e a Federação dos Sindicatos de Transportes e Comunicações - FECTRANS e outros). Retrieved on 11 June 2020, from: http://bte.gep.msess.gov.pt/completos/2016/bte47_2016.pdf
  28. 28.0 28.1 28.2 28.3 28.4 28.5 The Portuguese Authority for Working Conditions (ACT – Autoridade para as Condições do Trabalho). Retrieved on 11 June 2020, from: http://www.act.gov.pt/(pt-PT)/Paginas/default.aspx
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  30. Regional Labour Inspection of the Regional Government of the Azores (Inspeção Regional do Trabalho do Governo Regional dos Açores). Retrieved on 11 June 2020, from: http://www.azores.gov.pt/Portal/pt/entidades/vp-irt/
  31. Directorate-General for Employment and Labour Relations (Direção-Geral do Emprego e das Relações do Trabalho). Retrieved on 11 June 2020, from: https://www.dgert.gov.pt/
  32. Labour Mediation Service (SML - Sistema de Mediação Laboral). Retrieved on 11 June 2020, from: https://dgpj.justica.gov.pt/Resolucao-de-Litigios/Mediacao/Sistemas-Publicos-de-Mediacao/Sistema-de-Mediacao-Laboral
  33. Institute of Social Security (Instituto da Segurança Social). Retrieved on 11 June 2020, from: http://www.seg-social.pt/inicio
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  35. 35.0 35.1 35.2 35.3 The Protection against Occupational Hazards Department from the Institute of Social Security (DPRP - Departamento de Proteção contra os Riscos Profissionais da Segurança Social, I.P.). Retrieved on 11 June 2020, from: http://www.seg-social.pt/servicos
  36. Ordinance No. 135/2012 of 8 May 2012 and successive amendments on the Approval of the Statutes of the Social Security Institute, I. P. Diário da República, Série I, 8 May 2012, No. 89. Retrieved on 11 June 2020, from: https://dre.pt/application/file/a/553329
  37. The Institute of Support to Small and Medium Companies and Innovation (IAPMEI - Instituto de Apoio às Pequenas e Médias Empresas e à Inovação). Retrieved on 11 June 2020, from: https://www.iapmei.pt/
  38. The Directorate-General for Energy and Geology (DGEG – Direção-Geral de Energia e Geologia). Retrieved on 11 June 2020, from: http://www.dgeg.gov.pt/
  39. The Portuguese Data Protection Authority (CNPD – Comissão Nacional de Protecção de Dados). Retrieved on 11 June 2020, from: https://www.cnpd.pt/index.asp
  40. The Strategy and Planning Office (GEP - Gabinete de Estratégia e Planeamento). Retrieved on 11 June 2020, from: http://www.gep.mtsss.gov.pt/web/gep/inicio
  41. 41.0 41.1 Law No. 98/2009 of 4 September 2009 and successive amendments on the compensation scheme for accidents at work and occupational diseases, including professional rehabilitation and reintegration, under the terms of article 284 of the Labour Code, approved by Law no. 7/2009, of 12 February 2009. Diário da República, Série I of 4 September 2009, No. 172. Retrieved on 11 June 2020, from: https://dre.pt/application/file/a/489343
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  44. Decree-law No. 159/99 of 11 May 1999 and successive amendments on the regulations for occupational accident insurance for self-employed workers. Diário da República, Série I-A of 11 May 1999, No. 109. Retrieved on 11 June 2020, from: https://dre.pt/application/file/a/331516
  45. Your social security rights in Portugal. European Commission, Employment, Social Affairs and Equal Opportunities, July 2011. Retrieved on 11 June 2020, from: http://ec.europa.eu/employment_social/empl_portal/SSRinEU/Your%20social%20security%20rights%20in%20Portugal_en.pdf
  46. 46.0 46.1 46.2 Decree-Law No. 352/2007 on the Approval of the new National Disability Table for Work Accidents and Occupational Diseases, revoking Decree-Law no. 341/93, 30 September and approved the Indicative Table for the Assessment of Disability in Civil Law. Diário da República, Part I, No. 204, 23 October 2007. Retrieved on 11 June 2020, from: https://dre.pt/application/file/a/629015
  47. Regulating Decree No. 76/2007, amending Decree-Law No. 6/2001 of 5 May 2001, approving the list of occupational diseases and their coded content. Diário da República, Part I, 17 July 2007, No. 136. Retrieved on 11 June 2020, from: https://dre.pt/application/file/a/636088
  48. SNS – Serviço nacional de Saúde. Retrieved on 11 June 2020, from: https://www.sns.gov.pt/
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  50. Supplementary care benefit (Subsídio por assistência de 3ª pessoa). Institute of Social Security (Instituto da Segurança Social). Retrieved on 11 June 2020, from: http://www.seg-social.pt/subsidio-por-assistencia-de-3-pessoa
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  52. Reimbursement of funeral expenses (Subsídio de funeral)Institute of Social Security (Instituto da Segurança Social). Retrieved on 11 June 2020, from: http://www.seg-social.pt/subsidio-de-funeral
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  56. The Portuguese Association for Prevention and Safety Technicians (APTPS - Associação Portuguesa de Técnicos de Prevenção e Segurança). Retrieved on 11 June 2020, from: https://www.facebook.com/aptps1975/
  57. The Portuguese Society of Occupational Safety and Hygiene (SPOSHO - Sociedade Portuguesa de Segurança e Higiene Ocupacionais). Retrieved on 11 June 2020, from: http://www.sposho.pt/
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  59. The Portuguese Safety Association (APSEI – Associação Portuguesa de Segurança) . Retrieved on 11 June 2020, from: https://www.apsei.org.pt/homepage/
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  63. 63.0 63.1 63.2 63.3 Certification Manual of Senior and Junior Occupational Safety and Hygiene technician (Manual de Certificação – Técnico Superior de Segurança e Higiene do Trabalho e Técnico de Segurança e Higiene do Trabalho). Retrieved on 11 June 2020, from: http://www.act.gov.pt/(pt-PT)/AreasPrincipais/Formadores/Documents/Manual_de_Certificacao.pdf
  64. Ordinance No. 230/2008 of March 7 and successive amendments on on the definition of the legal education courses and adult education, named by Adult Education and Training Courses (EFA - Cursos de Educação e Formação para Adultos). Retrieved on 11 June 2020, from: https://dre.pt/application/file/a/247168
  65. Lisbon office of ILO – International Labour Organization (OIT – Organização Internacional do Trabalho). Retrieved on 11 June 2020, from: http://www.ilo.org/public/portugue/region/eurpro/lisbon/index.htm
  66. CIS Centres. ILO – International Labour Organization (OIT – Organização Internacional do Trabalho) Retrieved on 11 June 2020, from: https://ciscentres.org/en/welcome/p.html
  67. The Portuguese Welding Institute (ISQ – Instituto de Soldadura e Qualidade). Retrieved on 11 June 2020, from: https://www.isq.pt/
  68. The National Institute of Health Dr. Ricardo Jorge (INSA - Instituto Nacional de Saúde Dr. Ricardo Jorge). Retrieved on 11 June 2020, from: http://www.insa.pt/
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  71. The Technological Centre for Ceramics and Glass (CTCV - Centro Tecnológico da Cerâmica e do Vidro). Retrieved on 11 June 2020, from: https://www.ctcv.pt/index_eng.html