OSH system at national level - Slovakia
Ferenc Kudász, Hungarian Labour Office; Jana Gibódová, Národný inšpektorát práce; Ladislav Kerekeš, National Labour Inspectorate
- 1 Occupational safety and health legislative framework
- 2 National strategy and programmes
- 3 Social dialogue
- 4 OSH infrastructure
- 4.1 OSH infrastructure scheme
- 4.2 National competent bodies
- 4.3 Education, training and awareness raising
- 4.4 Awareness raising networks
- 4.5 Specialized technical, medical and scientific institutions
- 5 Institutions and organisations
- 6 References
- 7 Links for future reading
Occupational safety and health legislative framework
The Constitutional Act lays down that employees shall have the right to fair and satisfactory conditions of work, including the protection of safety and health at work. [[Https://www.ustavnysud.sk/ustava-slovenskej-republiky http://www.legislationline.org/download/action/download/id/1633/file/69fc5e0f45478ca59b551a3f8e92.htm/preview|]]
The Labour Code has a dedicated part delineating the basics of the occupational safety and health system.  The Slovakian legislation on occupational health and safety 124/2006 Coll. ("Act on OSH")  implements the European Framework Council Directive 89/391/EEC . The Act applies to every employer and to entrepreneurs. The emphasis is on prevention, starting with safe design, and a hierarchy of prevention measures. #[link to OSHwiki main category Prevention &control strategies, subcategory Preventive measures, article title Hierarchy of prevention measures: technical, organizational, PPE, article code WEI-11-015-8]# Due to the traditional distinction between workplace safety and health at work, protection of health is regulated in chapter three of the separate Act No. 355/2007 Coll. (“Act on Public Health”). 
Other OSH-directives are implemented in the form of government regulations. Empowering provisions are made by the Ministry of Labour, Social Affairs and Family of the Slovak Republic (Ministerstvo práce, sociálnych vecí a rodiny Slovenskej republiky – MPSVR SR)  on one hand and the Ministry of Health of the Slovak Republic (Ministerstvo zdravotníctva Slovenskej republiky – MZ SR)  on the other.
The employer has to elaborate on a concept (strategy) of occupational safety and health. Every employer is obliged to have preventive and protective services in order to organise and execute professional tasks in the field of safety and health at work. The services participate in the fulfilment of the occupational safety and health duties of the employer. If the employer lacks sufficient professional employees, the execution of preventive and protective services shall be contracted to authorised external professionals. The Safety Technical Service and the Occupational Health Service must co-operate. 
Main legislative acts:
Act No. 124/2006 Coll. on Occupational Safety and Health Protection 
Act No. 355/2007 Coll. on Protection, Support and Development of Public Health and on Amendments and Supplements to Certain Acts 
Act No. 311/2001 Coll. on Labour Code 
National strategy and programmes
Occupational Health and Safety Strategy in the Slovak Republic 2020 and its implementation program for 2013-2015 with a view to 2020 is based on the Policy Statement of the Government of the Slovak Republic and the strategy of the European Union “Strategic Framework on Health and Safety at Work 2014-2020”. The proposed measures were discussed at the Coordination Committee for Health and Safety at Work with the participation of experts from state bodies, social partners and educational and research institutions. The primary objective of the OSH strategy is to continue to reduce the number of accidents at work, in particular fatal and life-long accidents, as well as eliminating the causes of occupational diseases, improving prevention and strengthening the culture of work, compared to the situation achieved in 2012. There is a strong emphasis on the support of employers (especially small and middle-sized enterprises, high-risk sectors) and self-employed natural persons in the conscientious application of legal and other OSH regulations which is also an instrument that can help to achieve the objective above. Most of the priorities consist of several tasks; deadlines and responsible partners are provided in the document.
Table 1: OSH strategy Priorities
|Priority No. 1||Improving OSH awareness, promotion and culture of prevention|
|Priority No. 2||Improving the personal and material conditions for quality and effective functioning of labour inspection bodies and other supervision bodies in the field of OSH|
|Priority No. 3||Improving the quality of activities of professional entities authorized to perform activities in the field of OSH|
|Priority No. 4||Application of the system approach to OSH – related issues|
Source: Occupational Health and Safety Strategy in the Slovak Republic 2020 and its implementation program for 2013-2015 with a view to 2020 
Occupational safety and health is dealt in tripartite forums. The National Programme (OSH Strategy) is discussed with the involvement of the social partners, and the National OSH Network provides the fundamentals of national dialogue. #[link to OSHwiki main category OSH in general, subcategory Social Dialogue, article title Social dialogue in OSH, article code RO-11-04-8]# Regional level plays an important role in the system: there are regional bilateral contractual agreements of social partners, and agreements between the labour inspectorates and the trade unions.
The 2002 new labour legislation introduced important changes in collective bargaining. Social partners in the private sector can negotiate in collective bargaining on any issue on which they agree. However, the scope of collective bargaining in the public sector is limited to issues specified by the Act on civil service  and the Act on public service .
According to the labour inspection reports the communication and co-operation of employers with their employees in the OSH area is insufficient in small enterprises: in many cases no representatives of employees for OSH have been nominated and the cooperation between the employers and the employees was weak. Social partners report that social dialogue is the most fruitful in companies that already have a long tradition of it. 
Social dialogue at national level
Social dialogue has been a permanent process since its start in 1990 until today. It is based on the Tripartite Act.  The OSH Coordination Committee (Koordinačný výbor pre bezpečnosť a ochranu zdravia pri práci) was established with the purpose to coordinate state bodies’ activities in the field of OSH. Members of the Committee include the National Labour Inspectorate, several ministries (Ministry of Interior, Ministry of Justice – Directorate-General of the Prison and Justice Guard Corps, Ministry of Defence, Ministry of Health, Ministry of Labour, Social Affairs and Family, Ministry of Education, Science, Research and Sports, Ministry of Economy – Supreme Mining Authority) representatives of social partners, as well as educational and research institutions.
The National Labour Inspectorate has concluded an agreement on mutual understanding with the Confederation of Trade Unions of the Slovak republic.
The consultative bodies that play a key role in the social dialogue on related aspects are:
- for a long period of time, the Council of Economic and Social Agreement (Rada hospodárskej a sociálnej dohody – RHSD) has been the forum for the national tripartite social dialogue. In 2004, this body was renamed the Economic and Social Partnership Council (Rada hospodárskeho a sociálneho partnerstva – RHSP). Since 2007 , it has operated as the Economic and Social Council of the Slovak republic (Hospodárska a sociálna rada – HSR).  The Council is a consulting and reconciliatory body of the Government and of the social partners at the national level. It is located at the Ministry of Labour, Social Affairs and Family. Each side delegates members to the body, which reconciliates standpoints to proposals of generally binding legal regulations applying to - among others – working conditions.
The social partners include:
The Confederation of Trade Unions of the Slovak Republic (Konfederácia odborových zväzov Slovenskej republiky – KOZ SR) . KOZ SR is a voluntary association of trade unions. It particularly seeks the strengthening of health and safety at work. The Confederation has several professional trade union labour inspectors. Some regional inspectors also provide consultancy services, helping the negotiators also in the area of during the collective bargaining on sectoral and enterprise level. 
The Federation of Employers' Associations of the Slovak republic (Asociácia zamestnávateľských zväzov a združení Slovenskej republiky – AZZZ) 
The mission of the Federation is to ensure appropriate conditions for dynamic business development in the Slovak republic and to protect and represent employers’, businesses’ and trades’ common interests.
The National Union of Employers (Republiková únia zamestnávateľov – RÚZ) 
RÚZ co-operates with state authorities and bodies of regional governments, with representative associations of labour unions, commercial and industry chambers, as well as with other organisations representing local and foreign entrepreneurs and employers.
Slovak Trade Union (Slovenský živnostenský zväz - SZŽ) 
The Association associates professional organizations and is an independent representative of Slovak craftsmen and self-employed persons. Associations and guilds that become members of SŽZ are given the opportunity to be involved in the preparation of legislative standards affecting their professional areas or business conditions in general, in the context of interdepartmental comment procedures, as well as in direct communication with state authorities and the Parliament. SŽZ is a member of the Council of Solidarity and Development of the Slovak Republic established by the Office of the Government of the Slovak Republic and has representation in working groups and committees at various levels
Slovak Association of Small and Medium Enterprises and Self-Employed Persons (Slovenská asociácia malých a stredných podnikov a živnostníkov) 
The Association represents small entrepreneurs, its creation was initiated by the European Charter of Small Enterprises. It focuses its activities on the area of small and medium-sized entrepreneurs, with a focus on entrepreneurs, self-employed persons, enterprises with up to 50 employees and family businesses.
Association of Industrial Associations (Asociácia priemyselných zväzov) 
The Association represents more than 400 companies and as a non-political higher employer organization affects the economic and social policy of the state.
Social dialogue at sectoral level
Social dialogue about working conditions takes place on sectoral as well as local enterprise level where it has more factual and detailed outcomes. On the sectoral level it takes place in the form of collective bargaining and in some sectors also through sectoral tripartite/bipartite consultations.
In the transport, post and telecommunications sectors effective sectoral tripartite social dialogue takes place.  Although it is not common, in some sectors (e.g. chemical companies) social dialogue has a strong focus on occupational safety and health issues. 
Social dialogue at enterprise level
The Labour Code emphasizes that the employer, employees or employees’ representatives for occupational health and safety and trade union organisations shall jointly co-operate in the planning and execution of measures in the area of labour protection.  However, it is the OSH Act that specifies that the employee safety representatives (Zástupca zamestnancov pre bezpečnosť) are appointed by the employer, based on the recommendation of the competent trade union body or employee council, or in the lack of the aforementioned bodies, elected by the employees. Its specific supervisory and advisory rights are laid down in the OSH Act. One representative can represent a maximum of 50 employees in specified “risk sector” companies, and a maximum of 100 employees in “non-risk sector” ones. If there is no employee safety representative appointed then the consultation is direct with the employees. In a company with more than 100 employees, a commission for safety and health protection at work (Komisia bezpečnosti a ochrany zdravia pri práci) must be established as an advisory body to the employer. It meets at least once a year, consists of employee safety representatives (more than half) and the employer’s representatives, mainly professionals. 
Representatives of the trade unions are also entitled to information from the employer, to control proper implementation of labour legislation in practice and to propose measures to improve working conditions. Only the trade unions are entitled to collective bargaining, which is considered the most effective form of social dialogue. 
OSH infrastructure scheme
Source: overview by the authors
National competent bodies
Traditionally, occupational safety and occupational health are distinct features in Slovakia. The Ministry of Labour, Social Affairs and Family of the Slovak republic  is responsible for occupational safety and labour inspection. Occupational health and hygiene are within the competence of the Ministry of Health of the Slovak Republic . Therefore there are separate executive agencies of the ministries, which closely co-operate on national and regional levels in the field of . Both authorities can impose sanctions on employers in case of relevant shortcomings.
National Labour Inspectorate (Národný inšpektorát práce – NIP) 
Labour inspection is regulated by Act No. 125/2006 Coll.  The National Labour Inspectorate, is a state administration body with its own budget with a seat in Košice. The National Labour Inspectorate manages and controls the eight labour inspectorates in the regions and unifies and rationalises working methods of the labour inspectors, who are civil servants. A labour inspectorate is independent at the performance of labour inspection. Inspections aim at adherence to legal provisions in several fields of OSH: safety at work, safety of technical equipment, working environment agents, nuclear equipment, major industrial accidents, chemicals, and market surveillance of certain products. The provision of free consultations to employers has been rising.
It is the National Labour Inspectorate that issues and revokes authorisation to perform safety technical services and training and education. The tasks of authorisation for verification of meeting the requirements for safety of technical equipment and certification to authorised safety technicians are also legally assigned to NIP.
State defence, police and armed forces have their own labour inspection bodies. There is also a system of trade union control for the supervision of the employees´ health protection, which is independent from labour inspection.  This right of unions to carry out inspection is stipulated in the Labour Law. The activities of these inspectors are paid for by the state. 
Public Health Authority of the Slovak Republic (Úrad verejného zdravotníctva Slovenskej republiky – UVZSR) 
State supervision in the field of public health is determined by the Act No. 355/2007 Coll.  The Public Health Authority of the Slovak republic, which is a budgetary organisation of the state with a registered office in Bratislava, is the supreme office for the regional public health authorities. It manages, controls and coordinates the execution of state administration carried out by regional public health offices. State administration in the sector of health on regional level is ensured by 36 regional public health authorities, 8 of which are in county towns, ensure professional and methodical directing of the others. Public health authorities supervise employers’ adherence to legislation and fulfilment of measures directed for prevention of occupational diseases. They also supervise the performance of occupational health services, and carry out specialized tasks focused on monitoring of health status of employees in relation with working conditions. The public health authorities provide counselling for employers on the implementation of pertinent legal requirements. Several ministries (e.g. Defence, Interior, Transport) have their own public health authorities.
Besides these authorities there are also other specialised authorities dealing with certain aspects of OSH in specific areas:
- Supreme Mining Authority of the Slovak Republic (Hlavný banský úrad) 
- Department of Safety and Inspection at the Directorate-General of the Railways of the Slovak Republic and State Special Technical Supervision (Odbor bezpečnosti a inšpekcie - Železnice Slovenskej republiky a Štátny odborný technický dozor)
- Nuclear Regulatory Authority (Úrad jadrového dozoru Slovenskej republiky – ÚJD SR) 
It is the responsibility of the employer to provide safe and healthy working conditions for the employees; all the costs thereof are borne by the employer. A strategy for occupational safety and health has to be elaborated, except for companies with 10 employees or less. If the activity and risks are higher then this obligation applies to companies with less than 10 employees too. The employer must provide for a safety technical service and occupational health service that meets the requirements as set out in the Act on OSH either by employing experts (internal service) and/or by contracting (partially/completely external service). The experts/services must have appropriate certificates issued by the National Labour Inspectorate or the Public Health Authority. The minimum number of experts depends on the size of the organisation, the number of employees, the working conditions and risks. The safety technical and occupational health services must co-operate.
The Act on OSH makes a distinction in certain sectors that are listed in its Annex 1. There are stricter provisions for these “risk” sectors. From an occupational health point of view jobs are categorised into four groups, according to the risk level they are associated with. The details are set in the Decree of the Slovak Republic Ministry of Health No. 448/2007 Coll., on particulars of factors of work and working environment in relation to categorisation of work in terms of health risks and on requirements for the proposal on the categorisation of work. Category 1 is for workers that are not exposed to any relevant health risk during their work. Those workers whose exposure cannot be harmful to their health (e.g. exposure under limit values defined in regulations) are put into Category 2. Category 3 and 4 are classified hazardous, which is determined by the regional public health authority upon the proposal of the employer or on its own initiative. In jobs falling within Category 3 the technical prevention cannot satisfactorily eliminate the risk: the combination of exposures may result in health damage, there is no limit value set or the exposure of the worker to varying radiation levels requires technical plus individual prevention (e.g. welders and most jobs in manufacturing). Category 4 are either professions in which the criteria for risk 3 are met and where there are additional working environment risks (mostly cold, vibrations, humidity, dust, noise, UV radiation, etc.) that demonstrably participate in the change of health condition, or they are works where workers are exposed to higher values than in category 3 (e.g. underground ore mining with exposure to noise, vibrations, dust). Exposure that results the worker to be classified into Category 4 can only be exceptional and must not last longer than one year.
Safety Technical Service (Bezpečnostnotechnická služba)
Article 22 of the Act on OSH  states that the safety technical service provides advisory services to the employer in the field of professional, methodological, organisational, controlling, coordination and educational tasks and other duties connected to the assurance of safety and health protection at work. The service, which can be internal or external, checks the adequacy of the working premises, work processes, equipment and the technical, organisational and personal provisions thereof. The service informs and counsels the employer, and the managing personnel and train employees on occupational safety and health with an aim to optimise working conditions. In case of direct threat to life the service is empowered to instruct employees to take the necessary steps.
The tasks of the safety technical service may be executed by safety technicians, authorised safety engineers and, if necessary, by other OSH experts. In the case that the employer trades in a “risk” sector, an authorised safety engineer is obligatory. The minimum number of safety specialists for a given workforce is set in Annex 1a of the Act on OSH .
In certain cases (less than five employees in “risk” sectors or less than 19 employees from “non-risk” sectors) the employer itself can execute the tasks of the safety technical service but only by having acquired a specified qualification in OSH. The National Labour Inspectorate runs a public database of those who are registered to provide safety technical service.
Occupational Health Service (Pracovná zdravotná služba)
The employer shall be obligated to provide for assessment of health risk from exposure to work factors and working environment factors at the workplace. 
The employer shall be obligated to provide an assessment of medical fitness for work for its employees.
The Occupational Health Service carries out health surveillance over employees and provides professional and consulting services to the employer to fulfil the employer’s obligations in the field of protection and support of health at work. 
Activities of the occupational health service include especially:
- surveillance over working conditions,
- assessment of medical fitness of employees for the work by means of routine medical check-ups in respect of the work,
- consultancy focused on the protection of health at work and prevention of occupational diseases and work-related diseases.
The occupational health service is carried out by
- a physician specialised in specialised branch of general medicine, specialised branch of clinical occupational medicine and clinical toxicology, specialised branch of occupational medicine, specialised branch of preventive occupational medicine and toxicology, specialised branch of health services at work or specialised branch of public health service,
- public medical officer, or
- medical employees in the occupational health service team.
The Public Health Authority of the runs a public database of those who are registered to provide occupational health service. 
The assessment of medical fitness for work is carried out based on assessment of health risk from exposure to work factors and working environment factors, and based on results of routine medical check-up in respect of the work, for 
- performing work classified in the third category or in the fourth category,
- in case of repeated incidence of an occupational disease at the same profession in the same workplace,
- medical fitness for work of whom is required by the special regulation,
- performing work classified in the second category, the third category or the fourth category if he/she has not been carrying out such profession for more than six months for health reasons,
- natural person/ entrepreneur, who does not employ any natural persons
- performing work classified in the third category or in the fourth category,
- medical fitness for work of whom is required by the special regulation,
- other natural person applying for a job
- for the works classified in the third category or in the fourth category, or
- if his/ her medical fitness for work is required by the special regulation.
Restricted technical equipment
The employer may only carry out professional inspections and professional tests and repairs of certain restricted technical equipment on the basis of authorisation issued by the National Labour Inspectorate.
Specified technical equipment falling within the competence of labour inspection are:
- pressure equipment
- lifting equipment
- electrical equipment
- gas equipment 
Compensation and insurance bodies
Workplace accident insurance – together with several other kinds of insurance – is incorporated in the social insurance system. Insurance of employer’s responsibility against accidents at work and occupational disease is paid within the accident insurance, which is mandatory for every employer (except the employer as a judge and prosecutor). There is no minimum qualifying period required. The employer’s accident insurance is valid from the day he/she employed at least one employee and expires on the day when no employee is engaged. Within the accident insurance a whole range of benefits is provided depending on the character of events, either repeatedly or as lump-sum payments. The categorisation of accident benefits is as follows: additional accidental benefit, accidental rent, lump-sum settlement, survivor’s rent, lump–sum compensation, professional rehabilitation and rehabilitation benefit, retraining and retraining benefit, pain compensation and compensation for difficulties with social reintegration, compensation for medical expenses, funeral expenses reimbursement. The entitlement to accident benefits in the case of accident at work and occupational disease of the damaged person is in compliance with the legislation granted only in proportion to the employer´s responsibility: the benefit provided to the damaged employee is reduced by the rate of his/her evincible infliction. 
Social Insurance Agency (Sociálna poisťovňa)
The statutory institution has a nationwide competency in the area of sickness insurance, pension insurance, accident insurance, unemployment insurance and guarantee insurance. The headquarters regulates, controls and methodologically guides the 37 branch offices. It is in charge of the pension insurance area and of two types of benefits from the accident insurance. The executive body branch offices are responsible for the collection and recovery of sickness, unemployment and guarantee contributions, benefits pay out, as well as for a direct contact with clients.
Other OSH bodies
Institute of Occupational Safety (Inštitút bezpečnosti práce)
The Institute provides services and trainings in occupational and fire safety for companies.
Slovak Association of Occupational Safety and Health and Fire Safety (Slovenská asociácia pre bezpečnosť a ochranu zdravia pri práci a ochranu pred požiarmi – Slovenská asociácia pre BOZP a OPP)
The Association – besides promoting common interests and needs of its members – functions as an information network of OSH and fire safety professionals. Its web page aims to provide easy access to information. The Association fosters the issuance of codes of good practice, training materials for OSH and other supporting materials.
Slovak Occupational Medicine Society of Slovak Medical Association
Slovak Medical Chamber – Section of Occupational Medicine The Medical Society and the Chamber play role in the commenting process of legislation in the Slovak republic at the field of occupational health and safety. They are responsible for education and training of occupational physicians, public health workers and occupational nurses as well.
Education, training and awareness raising
Legally required training for OSH specialists
The Act on OSH clearly defines the certificates required from those involved in OSH: safety technician, safety engineer, occupational health service. The framework and the aims of training safety specialists and other players that must pay special attention to OSH are specified in the Decree of the Slovak Republic Ministry of Labour, Social Affairs and Family No. 356/2007 Coll., on the requirements and the scope of educational and training activity, project of education and training, standard record keeping and knowledge verification of educational and training activity attendees. Detailed information on the requirements and the licensing process of safety engineers can be obtained from the dedicated webpage of the National Labour Inspectorate. The Regulation of the Slovak Republic Government No. 296/2010 Coll. on professional competence for health profession performance  applies to the training of professionals of occupational health. It specifies required refreshment trainings of healthcare workers, framework of specialised disciplines and of certified working activities.
Employee safety representative
The employer is obliged to provide education for the employee safety representative. The specific content thereof is not legally set 
Employer executing the tasks of the safety technical service by itself
This option is only for employers that are professionally qualified (pursuant to paragraph 7 of the Act on OSH) employing:
- less than five employees, if its code, pursuant to the statistical classification of economic activities, is included in Annex No. 1,
- less than 19 employees, if its code, pursuant to the statistical classification of economic activities, is not included in Annex No. 1 may execute tasks of the safety technical service by themselves.
These employers must participate in a training that lasts at least 16 hours. These employers train their employees, evaluate risks, and propose measures to eliminate them.
Safety technician (Bezpečnostný technik)
Article 23 of the Act on OSH  defines who may be a safety technician. The training is based on completed secondary education. The safety technician’s certificate can be acquired after:
- special training and successful completion of the required test at a licensed trainer, or
- completing regular training in a secondary school or university with OSH curriculum approved by the National Labour Inspectorate.
Authorised safety engineer (Autorizovaný bezpečnostný technik)
A certificate of authorised safety engineer is issued by the National Labour Inspectorate on the basis of Article 24 of the Act on OSH . There are two options to fulfil the requirements.
- Two years of professional experience following the date of issue of the safety technician certificate, and a successful exam.
- At least five years’ professional activity in the field of occupational safety and health protection.
A refresher training is required every five years. Authorised safety engineers, unlike safety technicians, can even investigate serious occupational accidents, determine their causes and propose measures.
Higher education in occupational health
Following the completion of medical university physicians can specialise in several public health disciplines that enable them to provide occupational health service: occupational medicine, health services, clinical occupational medicine, clinical toxicology, preventive occupational medicine, toxicology, public health. There are university courses which specialise in public health (Mgr., Bc.)
Further education in occupational health
DAHE – assistants of hygiene and epidemiology with a diploma AHE – assistants of hygiene and epidemiology
Other vocational training
Training concerning the safety of the above mentioned “specified technical equipment” is detailed in group B of the Decree of No. 356/2007 Coll.
Awareness raising networks
The National Labour Inspectorate hosts the Focal Point of the European Agency for Health and Safety at Work.  The Focal Point coordinates and manages the national occupational health and safety network.
Specialized technical, medical and scientific institutions
The Institute for Labour and Family Research (Inštitút pre výskum práce a rodiny – IVPR) [› IVPR 43] is a state allowance departmental research organisation. Their research is focused on:
- management of occupational risk factors,
- quality of working conditions and working environment,
- psycho-social aspects of OSH,
- socio-economic aspects of OSH,
- systems of individual protection of employees.
IVPR participates in the coordination of publicly financed research of OSH (projects of the Slovak Research and Development Agency, the Ministry of Education, Science, Research and Sport of the Slovak Republic and the Ministry of Labour, Social Affairs and Family of the Slovak Republic). The Institute has created an agency of institutions that regularly provides information on their work and on OSH research they do.
The Coordinating Research Council for Safety and Health at Work in Slovakia (Koordinačná rada výskumu bezpečnosti a ochrany zdravia pri práci v Slovenskej Republike – KRVBOZP) was established in 2009 in order to create a platform for the consolidation and coordination of activities. KRVBOZP facilitates every phase and aspect of joint research activities. Players (universities, private companies, etc.) in occupational safety and health research in Slovakia are listed in their regularly updated catalogue.
Specialised research is mostly carried out at universities:
Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava - Faculty of Materials Science and Technology (Materiálovo-technologická fakulta Slovenskej technickej university – STU-MTF)
- determination of safety characteristics of substances
- development of new methods for assessment of technological risks
- assessment of dangerous substances in term of their environmental effect
- measurement of working environment agents
Technical University of Košice - Faculty of Mechanical Engineering (Strojnícka fakulta Technickej univerzity v Košiciach – SJF-TUKE)
- safety of technical systems
- management of technical equipment risk, risk simulation
- OSH management, integrated management systems
- risk of major industrial accidents, emergency planning
- protection from noise effects
- ergonomic aspects of occupational safety
- transport of dangerous substances
- safety in maintenance, new methods and approaches
University of Security Management of Košice (Vysoká škola bezpečnostného manažérstva v Košiciach – VŠBM)
- safety in industry – technical and technological safety
- integrated management systems
- environmental safety
- effects of human factor on safety
- safety and education
University of Žilina - Faculty of Special Engineering (Fakulta špeciálneho inžinierstva Žilinskej univerzity v Žiline – FŠI ŽU)
- analysis, risk assessment and design of preventive measures
- safety of transportation of dangerous objects
- integrated safety systems
- new concepts of maintenance in machine engineering with technical diagnostics utilization
- mathematical simulation of safety characteristics of management systems
VÚTCH-CHEMITEX (Výskumný ústav textilnej chémie – CHEMITEX)
- nanotechnologies and preparation of multifunctional materials for human protection
- technologies and products for the production of intelligent textile fabrics
Commenius University – Medical Faculty in Bratislava and Jessenius Medical Faculty in Martin (Kliniky pracovného lekárstva a toxikológie Lekárskej fakulty Komneského univerzity v Bratislave a Jesseniovej lekárskej fakulty v Martine – UK-LF, UK-JLF)   University of P. J. Šafárik – Faculty of Medicine (Klinika pracovného lekárstva a klinickej toxikológie Lekárskej fakulty Univerzity P. J. Šafárika v Košiciach – UPJŠ-LF)  Research areas:
- new emerging risks and new occupational diseases
- biological monitoring of exposed population
- new diagnostic procedures of occupational diseases
- differentiation of occupational diseases and work-related diseases
The Slovak Standards Institute (Slovenský ústav technickej normalizácie – SÚTN)  has been established by the Slovak Office of Standards, Metrology and Testing (Úrad pre normalizáciu, metrológiu a skúšobníctvo Slovenskej republiky – ÚNMS SR )). SUTN is exclusively designated to development, approval and publishing of Slovak Standards, fulfilment of obligations following from international contracts and from the membership in international and European standards organisations.
Institutions and organisations
|Table 2: Main OSH institutions and organisations in Slovakia|
|Key actors in the Slovakian OSH dialogue||OSH Coordination Committee||no webpage|
|Key social partners in the Slovakian OSH field||KOZ SR|
|OSH authorities and inspection services||MPSVR SR|
|Hlavný banský úrad|
|Professional organisation of OSH services||n.a.||n.a.|
|Compensation and insurance body||Sociálna poisťovňa|
|Key prevention institutes||Inštitút bezpečnosti práce|
|Key professional associations||Asociácia pre BOZP a OPP|
|Key research institutes||IVPR|
|VÚTCH – CHEMITEX|
|Key normalisation actor||SÚTN|
Source: Overview by the authors
 The Constitutional Court of the . 460/1992 Constitution of the . Available at: https://www.ustavnysud.sk/ustava-slovenskej-republiky http://www.legislationline.org/download/action/download/id/1633/file/69fc5e0f45478ca59b551a3f8e92.htm/preview
 311 Zákon z 2. júla 2001 Zákonník Práce. Available at: https://www.slov-lex.sk/pravne-predpisy/SK/ZZ/2001/311/20191119 English version retrieved on 4 December 2019 from: https://www.ip.gov.sk/wp-content/uploads/2017/11/Act-No.-311_2001-Coll.pdf
 124 zákon z 2. februára 2006 o bezpečnosti a ochrane zdravia pri práci a o zmene a doplnení niektorých zákonov. Available at: https://www.slov-lex.sk/pravne-predpisy/SK/ZZ/2006/124/20160102
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 Council Directive of 12 June 1989 on the introduction of measures to encourage improvements in the safety and health of workers at work (89/391/EEC), Available at: http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CELEX:01989L0391-20081211:EN:NOT
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 553/2003 Z. z. - Zákon o odmeňovaní niektorých zamestnancov pri výkone práce vo verejnom záujme a o zmene a doplnení niektorých zákonov. Available at: https://www.slov-lex.sk/pravne-predpisy/SK/ZZ/2003/553/20190901
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 HSR: www.vlada.gov.sk/hospodarska-a-socialna-rada-sr/
 KOZ SR: http://www.kozsr.sk/
 AZZZ: http://www.azzz.sk
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 Zoznam vydaných a odobratých osvedčení a oprávnení. Available at: https://www.ip.gov.sk/app/OaO/
 § 30 zákona č. 355/2007 Z. z.
 § 30a zákona č. 355/2007 Z. z.
 § 30e zákona č. 355/2007 Z. z.
 Úrad verejného zdravotníctva Slovenskej republiky (2019). Zoznam právnických osôb a fyzických osôb – podnikateľov. Retrieved on 19 December 2019 from: http://www.uvzsr.sk/index.php?option=com_content&view=category&layout=blog&id=153&Itemid=122
 508 Z. z. –Vyhláška Ministerstva práce, sociálnych vecí a rodiny Slovenskej republiky z 9. júla 2009, ktorou sa ustanovujú podrobnosti na zaistenie bezpečnosti a ochrany zdravia pri práci s technickými zariadeniami tlakovými, zdvíhacími, elektrickými a plynovými a ktorou sa ustanovujú technické zariadenia, ktoré sa považujú za vyhradené technické zariadenia. Available at: https://www.slov-lex.sk/pravne-predpisy/SK/ZZ/2009/508/20140901
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 Slovenská spoločnosť pracovného lekárstva SLS: http://ssprl.sk/
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 356/2007 Z. z. - Vyhláška Ministerstva práce, sociálnych vecí a rodiny Slovenskej republiky, ktorou sa ustanovujú podrobnosti o požiadavkách a rozsahu výchovnej a vzdelávacej činnosti, o projekte výchovy a vzdelávania, vedení predpísanej dokumentácie a overovaní vedomostí účastníkov výchovnej a vzdelávacej činnosti. Available at: https://www.slov-lex.sk/pravne-predpisy/SK/ZZ/2007/356/20070901
 Národný inšpektorát práce (2011). Tests ABT. Retrieved 04 December 2019, from: https://www.ip.gov.sk/okruhy-otazok-na-ustnu-cast-skusky-abt/
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 Slovakian Focal Point: http://osha.europa.eu/fop/slovakia/sk/index_html
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 VŠBM: http://www.vsbm.sk/
 FBI ŽU: http://fbi.uniza.sk/
 VÚTCH-CHEMITEX: http://vutch.sk/
 UK-LF: http://www.fmed.uniba.sk/pracoviska/klinicke-pracoviska/klinika-pracovneho-lekarstva-a-toxikologie-lf-uk-a-un-bratislava/
 UK-JLF: http://www.jfmed.uniba.sk/pracoviska/vedecko-pedagogicke-pracoviska/kliniky-a-ustavy/klinika-pracovneho-lekarstva-a-toxikologie/
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 SÚTN: http://www.sutn.sk
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Links for future reading
Eurofound (2010). : "EWCO comparative analytical report on Information, consultation and participation of workers concerning health and safety". Retrieved 07 April 2012 from: http://www.eurofound.europa.eu/ewco/studies/tn0911028s/sk0911029q.htm#contentpage
International Labour Organisation (2010). NATLEX – . Retrieved 08 June 2012 from: http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/natlex_browse.country?p_lang=en&p_country=SVK
Szalay, T., Pažitný, P., Szalayová, A., Frisová, S., Morvay, K., Petrovič, M. & van
Ginneken, E., : Health system review. Health Systems in Transition. WHO, ,
2011. Available at: http://www.euro.who.int/en/who-we-are/partners/observatory/health-systems-in-transition-hit-series/countries/slovakia-hit-2011