Occupational allergens

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Jeroen Terwoert, TNO;Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research

Introduction

Allergens are substances that may cause a hypersensitivity (allergy) of the immune system. After acquiring this hypersensitivity, further exposure to the same substance may result in allergic skin disease such as allergic contact dermatitis, or allergic airway disease such as allergic rhinitis or asthma. Occupational allergens are present in many sectors and occupations. Occupational allergens and the products containing them may be identified by means of their classification and labelling as well as by using various existing lists. Prevention should include combinations of measures at source, technical and organisational measures, personal protection and hygiene, and early warning.

What are occupational allergens?

Allergens – or ‘sensitisers’ – are substances that may cause a hypersensitivity (allergy) of the immune system. An allergy develops in two phases. First, the immune system acquires a hypersensitivity (gets sensitised) as a result of exposure to the allergen. At each subsequent contact with the same substance an abnormally strong immune response occurs, which may result in allergic disease such as allergic contact dermatitis (eczema) or allergic asthma. Occupational allergens are those allergens to which exposure at work may occur – as distinguished from e.g. food allergens. Well-known examples of occupational allergens are:

  • Natural substances such as flour dust, animal skin or rubber latex;
  • Components in 2-pack paints and adhesives, e.g. epoxy resin components, acrylates and isocyanates;
  • Metals such as nickel and cobalt;
  • Preserving agents in cosmetics, paints, adhesives etc.

Health effects

The health effects that occupational allergens cause may force workers to leave their profession. An allergic reaction may develop within weeks after the first time of exposure. However, it may take years as well. This depends on the intensity of exposure, the personal sensitivity of the person exposed and the strength of the allergen (its sensitising potential). Not everybody will develop an allergy upon exposure. However, everybody is in chance of getting sensitised. The most significant health effects of occupational allergens include contact dermatitis, rhinitis and occupational asthma.

Contact dermatitis

Contact dermatitis – also called eczema – is an inflammation of the skin which may result in rashes (redness), itch or pain, nodules, vesicles (blisters), scaling, thickened skin and in severe cases fissures. Generally, the symptoms of allergic contact dermatitis are quite similar to those of irritant contact dermatitis. Only testing for allergy may distinguish between the two. However, the chance of acquiring an allergic contact dermatitis is greatly increased when irritant contact dermatitis already exists. Treatment of contact dermatitis is difficult, which is why it often develops into a chronic skin condition. Eczema may hamper social intercourse, as well as the performance of manual tasks.

Rhinitis

Rhinitis is an inflammation of the nose, which may be caused by irritants or allergens. Rhinitis often precedes the development of allergic asthma.

Occupational asthma

Asthma is a disease of the airways, leading to periodic narrowing of the airways, and an increased sensitivity to all kinds of non-specific stimuli.

Symptoms of asthma include difficulty in breathing, tightness of chest and cough. Asthma is a serious disease that may be life-threatening. Asthma may be related to work in two ways:

  1. Pre-existing asthma that is aggravated by factors at the workplace, such as irritants or other stimuli.
  2. ‘True’ occupational asthma: asthma that is caused by factors at the workplace.

In most cases, occupational asthma is caused by allergens. However, irritant-induced asthma exists as well.

In some cases, workers may develop skin disease after being sensitised as a result of exposure through the airways. Reversely, workers may develop allergic rhinitis or asthma after being sensitised after dermal exposure. Such cross reactions may occur for example upon exposure to isocyanates in paints or adhesives, or to (powdered) latex gloves.

Professions at risk

Several hundreds of occupational allergens are known. Exposure to allergens may occur in a lot of sectors of the economy, and in many different occupations. In some cases, consumers may get in contact with similar allergens as those encountered at the workplace, e.g. by using cleaning products or cosmetics. A number of major professions at risk are indicated in tables 1[1][2][3][4] & 2[5][2][3].

Table 1: Professions at risk of skin effects (contact dermatitis) caused by occupational allergens



Table 2: Professions at risk of airway effects (occupational asthma, rhinitis) caused by occupational allergens


Risk assessment

The employer should describe potential risks caused by occupational allergens in the obligatory risk assessment. Occupational health preventive services may support the employer in the process.

First of all, occupational allergens have to be recognised. Subsequently, risk assessment tools and monitoring may be applied.

One has to be aware of the fact that irritating factors at the workplace may enhance the impact of allergens. In case of exposure of the airways, irritant stimuli such as welding fume, diesel motor exhaust or tobacco smoke may increase the airways’ susceptibility to allergens. In case of dermal exposure, ‘wet work’ is a particularly relevant factor. Frequent or prolonged exposure of the skin to water may weaken the skin’s barrier function, and may in fact result in the development of contact dermatitis on its own. Upon subsequent exposure to allergens, the chances of getting sensitised will be increased. Wet work is a relevant factor in many professions, including cleaning personnel, nurses, hairdressers and food and catering workers. Irritant substances present in e.g. cleaning agents may add to diminishing the skin’s barrier function.

Recognising occupational allergens

Allergens at the workplace may be recognised by means of their classification and labelling. However, relatively many allergens are ‘non-purchased’ substances (see table 2). In that case, the allergens may be identified by means of available lists.

Table 3: Classification and labelling of occupational allergens

Table 3 provides the hazard symbols and risk-phrases or hazard-statements by which allergens may be recognised on the labels or in the Safety Data Sheets (SDS) of substances or products[6][7].

In addition to the label and SDS, it may often be needed to consult one or more existing lists of occupational allergens. These include substances that may be generated in certain processes instead of being purchased, such as those of biologic origin. Such lists can be found in two EU-OSHA publications – FACTS-39 on Respiratory sensitisers and FACTS-40 on Skin sensitisers – and in De Craecker et al., 2008 and Chew & Maibach, 2003. Web-links which provide lists of occupational allergens have been included in the links for further reading.

Risk assessment tools and monitoring

As soon as the potential allergens at the workplace have been identified one may proceed with exposure assessment and risk assessment using one of the available risk assessment tools and/or monitoring at the workplace. Well-known risk assessment tools include COSHH-Essentials in the UK[8], the German EMKG[9] and the Stoffenmanager (Dutch and English versions)[10].

In case of exposure by inhalation, the exposure may be assessed against an available Occupational Exposure Limit (OEL). However, in case of respiratory allergens the derivation and use of OELs brings about specific problems. Threshold levels below which workers will not get sensitised are hard to determine and it has been posed that any exposure, even if very small, entails some risk of sensitisation[11][12].

However, the risk of getting sensitised is usually dose related, that is the higher the exposure the more likely the individual will become sensitised. Therefore, in some countries an approach is used that is based on determining a ‘tolerated risk level’, and subsequently setting an OEL for respiratory allergens on the basis of this, similar to the approach used for genotoxic carcinogens[12]. Similarly, once the sensitisation reaction has taken place, further exposure to the substance, even to the smallest amounts may produce symptoms. That is, even the very low OEL that has been set to prevent sensitisation does not protect the person already sensitised. This is known as elicitation.

OELs for local effects to the skin do not exist. However, in some countries the available lists of OELs provide notices of sensitising effects where applicable. Basically, the general rule should be to limit skin and respiratory exposure to allergens as much as possible.

Regulations

The European Framework Directive on Safety and Health at Work 89/391/EEC requires that employers assess hazards and risks at the workplace and take measures to control exposure where needed[13]. Furthermore, the Chemical Agents Directive includes guidelines for risk assessment. There are no specific EU-wide regulations to the group of ‘allergens’ as a whole. However, the Cosmetics Directive[14] contains requirements on the use of allergens in cosmetic products, such as a labelling requirement for 26 common allergenic fragrances[14]. In addition, several Member States (e.g. Germany, Netherlands) have made specific regulations that cover occupational allergens, the prevention of occupational skin disease in general, or the prevention of skin and airway disease in specific sectors, such as the hairdressing trade (see References).

Prevention

The European Framework Directive on Safety and Health at Work 89/391/EEC prescribes a hierarchy of control measures, which has been adopted by all member states[13]. Preferably, measures to control exposure and prevent health effects caused by substances should be taken at source. If this is not possible, one may take technical or organisational measures or, as a last resort, use personal protection. Some examples that are specific to allergens are mentioned below.

Measures at source

Employers may try to make the use of allergens superfluous. E.g., in concrete repair, in many cases cement-based products perform even better than products that contain both cement and epoxy resins.

One may also try to substitute allergens by less harmful substances. In the hairdressers’ trade, the so-called ‘acid’ permanent waving fluid (glyceryl thioglycolate) can be substituted by the less sensitising ammonium thioglycolate. Latex gloves may be substituted by nitrile gloves. Isocyanate monomers in polyurethane-based coatings have been partly substituted by oligomers which are less volatile and less sensitising. Substitution by products that reduce exposure may be possible as well, e.g. low-chromium cement, or less volatile hardeners (amines) for epoxy-based adhesives.

In some cases, the supplier may adapt the form or packaging of the product. E.g., less dusty hair-whitening powder (persulfate), coated enzymes in the detergent industry or a type of packaging for 2-pack adhesives that allows for mixing inside the package.

Technical measures

General ventilation and local exhaust ventilation (LEV) may be effective in case of allergens. Examples include spraying booths for (e.g.) isocyanate-containing coatings, ventilated cabins for the preparation of medical drugs, and working tables with downdraft LEV for nail technicians.

If automation is not possible, specific tools and equipment may still reduce exposure, such as closed mixing vessels for 2-pack products, splash guards for paint rollers when sensitising epoxy or polyurethane products are used, spatula that facilitate a smooth application of sealants and prevent the worker from using his fingers, and paint spraying guns that reduce ‘overspray’ (e.g. the High Volume Low Pressure or Air mix types of spray guns).

Organisational measures

Separation of certain activities, and restricted access, may reduce exposure. E.g. the hairdressing trade has defined guidelines for establishing separated areas for mixing hair colourants etc. Vegetable growers that apply living biologic pest control such as mites, may close the department for other workers at moments at which the mites are dispersed. Floor layers that use allergenic two-pack flooring products based on epoxy or polyurethane resins may demarcate the mixing area, in order to limit the number of workers that are potentially exposed to sensitising epoxy resin, amine hardeners or isocyanate hardeners.

Personal protection (PPE)

PPE may only be used when other measures are not sufficiently effective or not possible. One may consult the SDS in order to select the proper personal protective equipment (PPE). In order to prevent inhalation of solid allergens, filtering facepieces may be sufficient in less demanding cases. Depending on the specific substance and process, more advanced options including full-face air-supplied respirators may be needed. The use of respirators may be too burdensome for workers who already suffer from asthma.

Regarding skin protection: consult the SDS in order to select proper gloves. In any case, leather, cotton and polyethylene gloves are generally not suitable, just like gloves that contain allergens, such as latex. Furthermore:

  • Consult the SDS or the product information of the glove, for the maximum time of use for the allergens in question;
  • Preferably, use disposable gloves and use them only once;
  • Gloves may get contaminated inside when taking them of or putting them on;
  • The skin may get contaminated when taking gloves off or putting them on;
  • When the gloves are not used, hazardous substances will continue to penetrate through the glove, i.e. working breaks should be counted in the time of use;
  • Never put on gloves when the hands or the gloves are wet or contaminated;
  • Do not use moisture-tight gloves too long at a time; the hands may get wet as a result of perspiration within 10 minutes already, which may lead to contact dermatitis;
  • Prevent the effect of moisture by perspiration by using cotton inner gloves.

Skin care

It is advisable to use a skin care cream before work starts, every time after washing the hands, and after work.

Furthermore, it is advisable to draw up a skin protection plan, especially in professions with known skin problems (e.g. cleaners, hairdressers, construction, food manufacturing). Include measures and instructions for:

  • skin protection before work
  • skin cleansing during and after work
  • skin care after work

taking into account:

  • type of contamination, i.e. oily, greasy or strongly clinging such as lacquer, resins, adhesives
  • moist and wet working areas: metal working fluids, water, washing and cleansing solutions
  • skin protection when wearing gloves
  • protection from UV radiation when welding and working under strong sunlight.

Measures should also address wet work (see section 4.)

Early warning and health monitoring

Early detection of skin abnormalities or airway complaints may prevent the development of more severe complaints such as allergic contact dermatitis or asthma. Irritant contact dermatitis may enhance the penetration of allergens through the skin, increasing the chance at acquiring an allergic contact dermatitis. One may use:

  • standardised questionnaires or interviews;
  • clinical investigations of the airways (lung function tests) or the skin (by the occupational physician, dermatologist or lung specialist).

In order to facilitate early detection of skin disease, so-called ‘pictionnaire’ questionnaires have been developed, which use photos of affected skin[15].

After finding cases of sensitisation, skin or airway disease, the effectiveness of control measures in place should be evaluated again. Reporting schemes within the company – in addition to any reporting obligation to national occupational disease registries – may increase the companies’ capacity to trace defects in the risk management measures in place.

Good Practice

Examples of good practice in relation to preventing either skin disease or airway disease caused by allergens have for example been presented by the EU-project Safehair (hairdressers), the HSE[16][17] and in Spee et al., 2006[18][19].

References

  1. EU-OSHA, ‘Skin sensitisers’, FACTS-40, 2003. Available at: http://osha.europa.eu/en/publications/factsheets/40/view
  2. 2.0 2.1 De Craecker, W., Roskams, N., Op de Beeck, R., ‘Occupational skin diseases and dermal exposures in the European Union (EU-25): policies and practice overview’, EU OSHA, Bilbao, 2008. Available at: http://osha.europa.eu/en/publications/reports/TE7007049ENC_skin_diseases
  3. 3.0 3.1 Chew, A. L. & H. I. Maibach, ‘Occupational issues of irritant contact dermatitis‘, Int. Arch. Occup. Environ. Health, vol. 76, 2003, pp. 339-346. Available at: https://springerlink3.metapress.com/content/38qtqkyw151wgvp9/resource-secured/?target=fulltext.pdf&sid=y5wz4pq3itoltxz1emhcb5me&sh=www.springerlink.com
  4. HSE – Health and Safety Executive, Skin at work website, 2011. Retrieved 12 April 2011, from: http://www.hse.gov.uk/skin/
  5. EU-OSHA, ‘Respiratory sensitisers’, FACTS-39, 2003. Available at: http://osha.europa.eu/en/publications/factsheets/39/view
  6. Directive 1999/45/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 31 May 1999 concerning the approximation of the laws, regulations and administrative provisions of the Member States relating to the classification, packaging and labelling of dangerous preparations as modified, Official Journal of the European Communities, L 200/1, 30-07-1999. Available at: http://osha.europa.eu/en/legislation/directives/exposure-to-chemical-agents-and-chemical-safety/osh-related-aspects/59
  7. Regulation (EC) No 1272/2008, ‘Classification, labelling and packaging of substances and mixtures‘ of the European Parliament and of the Council of 16 December 2008, Official Journal of the European Union L 353, 31 December 2008. Available at: http://osha.europa.eu/en/legislation/directives/exposure-to-chemical-agents-and-chemical-safety/osh-related-aspects/regulation-ec-no-1272-2008-classification-labelling-and-packaging-of-substances-and-mixtures
  8. COSHH-Essentials, Health and Safety Executive, United Kingdom Available at: http://www.coshh-essentials.org.uk/about.asp
  9. BAuA, ‘Einfaches Maßnahmen Konzept Gefahrstoffe (EMGK)‘, 2006. Retrieved 30 August 2011, from: http://www.emkg.de/
  10. Stoffenmanager, Ministry of Social Affairs and Employment, Netherlands. Available at: https://www.stoffenmanager.nl/default.aspx
  11. Topping, M., 2001, Occupational exposure limits for chemicals, Occup. Environ. Med., vol. 58, pp. 138-144, available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1740099/pdf/v058p00138.pdf
  12. 12.0 12.1 Health Council of The Netherlands, 2008, Prevention of work-related airway allergies. Recommended occupational exposure limits and periodic screening, The Hague, Health Council of The Netherlands, publication no. 2008/03, available at: http://www.gezondheidsraad.nl/nl/adviezen/preventie-van-werkgerelateerde-luchtwegallergie-n-advieswaarden-en-periodieke-screening-0
  13. 13.0 13.1 Directive 98/391, OSH Framework Directive of 12 June 1989 on the introduction of measures to encourage improvements in the safety and health of workers at work, Official Journal of the European Communities L 183/1, 29-06-1989. Available at: http://osha.europa.eu/en/legislation/directives/the-osh-framework-directive/1
  14. 14.0 14.1 Council Directive 76/768/EEC of 27 July 1976 on the approximation of the laws of the Member States relating to cosmetic products. Available at: http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CELEX:31976L0768:EN:HTML
  15. Coenraads P. J., H. Van der Walle, K. Thestrup-Pedersen, T. Ruzicka, B. Dreno, C. De la Loge, M. Viala, S. Querner, T. Brown, M. Zultak, ‘Construction and validation of a photographic guide for assessing severity of chronic hand dermatitis’, British Journal of Dermatology, vol. 152, 2005, pp. 296-301. Available at: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1365-2133.2004.06270.x/full
  16. SafeHair, ‘Declaration of Dresden – Common health and safety development in professional hairdressing in Europe’, SafeHair, 28-09-2010. Retrieved 12 April 2011, from: http://www.safehair.eu/
  17. HSE – Health and Safety Executive, ‘Managing skin exposure risks at work’, 2009. Available at: http://www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/priced/hsg262.pdf
  18. Spee, T., C. van Duivenbooden, J. Terwoert, ‘Epoxy resins in the construction industry’, Ann. N.Y. Acd. Sci., vol. 1076, 2006, pp. 429-438. Available at: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1196/annals.1371.010/pdf
  19. HSE – Health and Safety Executive, COSHH Essentials Control sheet SR11 – ‘Hairdressing’, 2006. Available at: http://www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/guidance/sr11.pdf


Links for further reading

Andersen, K. E., ‘Occupational issues of allergic contact dermatitis’, Int. Arch. Occup. Environ. Health, vol. 76, 2003, pp. 347-350. Available at: https://springerlink3.metapress.com/content/yjfk0vhauu3cn4qk/resource-secured/?target=fulltext.pdf&sid=b0utlq55szxznw55jnonwn55&sh=www.springerlink.com

Basketter, D., Dooms-Goossens, A., Karlberg, A.-T., Lepoittevin, J.-P., ‘The chemistry of contact allergy: why is a molecule allergenic?’, Contact Dermatitis, vol. 32, 1995, pp. 65-73. Available at: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1600-0536.1995.tb00748.x/pdf

Bourke, J., Coulson, I., English, J., ‘Guidelines for the management of contact dermatitis: an update’, British Journal of Dermatology 160, 2009, pp. 946-954. Available at: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1365-2133.2009.09106.x/abstract

Brown, T., ‘Strategies for prevention: occupational contact dermatitis’, Occupational Medicine vol. 54, 2004, pp. 450-457. Available at: http://occmed.oxfordjournals.org/content/54/7/450.full.pdf+html

Brun, E., Flaspöler, E., Reinert, D., ‘Expert forecast on emerging chemical risks related to occupational safety and health’, EU-OSH, Bilbao, 2009. Available at: http://osha.europa.eu/en/publications/reports/TE3008390ENC_chemical_risks

Cullinan, P., ‘The prevention of occupational asthma’, Eur. Respir. J., vol. 22, 2003, pp. 853-860. Available at: http://erj.ersjournals.com/content/22/5/853.full.pdf+html

Diepgen, T. L., ‘Occupational skin-disease data in Europe’, Int. Arch. Occup. Environ. Health vol. 76, 2003, pp. 331-338. Available at: https://springerlink3.metapress.com/content/qeegjtpykpum3e2p/resource-secured/?target=fulltext.pdf&sid=b0utlq55szxznw55jnonwn55&sh=www.springerlink.com

EU-OSHA, ‘Risk assessment for hairdressers’, E-FACTS-34, 2008. Available at: http://osha.europa.eu/en/publications/e-facts/efact34/view

EU-OSHA, ‘Risk assessment for care workers‘, E-FACTS-35, 2008. Available at: http://osha.europa.eu/en/publications/e-facts/efact35/view

EU-OSHA, ‘Cleaners and dangerous substances’, E-FACTS-41, 2008. Available at: http://osha.europa.eu/en/publications/e-facts/efact41/view

Gautrin, D., Newman-Taylor, A. J., Nordmann, H., Malo, J.-L., ‘Controversies in epidemiology of occupational asthma’, Eur. Respir. J., vol. 22, 2003, pp. 551-559. Available at: http://erj.ersjournals.com/content/22/3/551.full.pdf+html

Geier, J., Krautheim, A., Uter, W., Lessmann, H., Schnuch, A., ‘Occupational contact allergy in the building trade in Germany: influence of preventive measures and changing exposure’, Int. Arch. Occup. Environ. Health, published online at 24-09-2010, 2010. Available at: http://www.springerlink.com/content/y3w24739m4r62762/fulltext.pdf

Heederik, D., Doekes, G., Nieuwenhuijsen, M. J., ‘Exposure assessment of high molecular weight sensitisers: contribution to occupational epidemiology and disease prevention’, 1999, Occup. Environ. Med., vol. 56, pp. 735-741. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1757674/pdf/v056p00735.pdf

Kimber, I., Basketter, D. A., Butler, M., Gamer, A., Garrigue, J. L., Gerberick, G. F., Newsome, C., Steiling, W., Vohr, H.W., ‘Classification of contact allergens according to potency: proposals’, 2003. Available at: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=MImg&_imagekey=B6T6P-49J8S4G-1-1&_cdi=5036&_user=603085&_pii=S0278691503002230&_origin=search&_coverDate=12%2F31%2F2003&_sk=999589987&view=c&wchp=dGLzVzz-zSkzk&&_valck=1&md5=336b521d395ac69e5a9e8c8f5ad5eedc&ie=/sdarticle.pdf

Kimber, I. And R.J. Dearman, ‘What makes a chemical an allergen?’, Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology, vol. 90 (suppl.), 2003, pp. 28-31. Available at: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B9HC7-4YFCY0M-7&_user=10&_coverDate=05%2F31%2F2003&_rdoc=1&_fmt=high&_orig=browse&_origin=browse&_sort=d&view=c&_acct=C000050221&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=23f6664116bcb6a9c07d91178876c7d5

Lachowsky & Lopez, ‘Occupational allergens’, Current Allergy and Asthma Reports, vol. 1, 2001, pp. 587-593. Available at: http://www.springerlink.com/content/36220956713757x8/

Mapp, C. E., Boschetto, P., Maestrelli, P., Fabbri, L. M., ‘Occupational Asthma – State of the Art’, Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med., vol. 172, 2005, pp. 280-305. Available at: http://ajrccm.atsjournals.org/cgi/reprint/172/3/280

Meijster, T., ‘Exposure intervention and health impact assessment – The example of baker’s asthma’ (thesis, University Utrecht, Netherlands), 2009. Available at: http://www.tno.nl/downloads/meijster_proefschrift_final1.pdf

NCvB, ‘Background document work related rhinitis’ (in Dutch), NCvB, 15-11-2010. Available at: http://www.beroepsziekten.nl/datafiles/achtergrond-document-J001.pdf

Rijnkels, J.M., Smid, T., Van den Aker, E. C., Burdorf, A., Van Wijk, R. G., Heederik, D. J. J., Houben, G. F., Van Loveren, H., Pal, T. M., Van Rooy, F. G. B. G. J., Van der Zee, J. S., ‘Prevention of work-related airway allergies; summary of the advice from the health council of the Netherlands’, ib: Allergy 2008: 63, pp. 1593-1596. Available at: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1398-9995.2008.01906.x/abstract

TRGS 401 – ‘Risks resulting from skin contact – determination, evaluation, measures’, Committee on Hazardous substances, Bundesministerium für Arbeit und Soziales, Germany, 2008. Available at: http://www.baua.de/en/Topics-from-A-to-Z/Hazardous-Substances/TRGS/pdf/TRGS-401.pdf?__blob=publicationFile&v=4

TRGS 402 - ‘Identification and assessment of the risks from activities involving hazardous substances: inhalation exposure’ Committee on Hazardous substances, Bundesministerium für Arbeit und Soziales, Germany, 2010. http://www.baua.de/en/Topics-from-A-to-Z/Hazardous-Substances/TRGS/TRGS-402.html

TRGS 406 – ‘Inhalatory Sensitizers’ [in German], Ausschuss für Gefahrstoffe, Bundesministerium für Arbeit und Soziales, 2008. Available at: http://www.baua.de/de/Themen-von-A-Z/Gefahrstoffe/TRGS/pdf/TRGS-TRBA-406.pdf?__blob=publicationFile&v=3

TRGS 430 – ‘Isocyanates – ‘Risk assessment and control measures’ [in German], Ausschuss für Gefahrstoffe, Bundesministerium für Arbeit und Soziales, 2009. Available at: http://www.baua.de/de/Themen-von-A-Z/Gefahrstoffe/TRGS/pdf/TRGS-430.pdf?__blob=publicationFile&v=3

TRGS 530 – ‘Hairdressing’ [in German], Ausschuss für Gefahrstoffe, Bundesministerium für Arbeit und Soziales, 2007. Available at: http://www.baua.de/de/Themen-von-A-Z/Gefahrstoffe/TRGS/pdf/TRGS-530.pdf?__blob=publicationFile&v=3

TRGS 540 – Sensitising substances, [in German], Ausschuss für Gefahrstoffe, Bundesministerium für Arbeit und Soziales, 2000. Available at: http://www.gaa.baden-wuerttemberg.de/servlet/is/16495/5_540.pdf

TRGS 907 – ‘Survey of sensitising substances’ [in German], Ausschuss für Gefahrstoffe, Bundesministerium für Arbeit und Soziales, 2002. Available at: http://www.baua.de/de/Themen-von-A-Z/Gefahrstoffe/TRGS/pdf/TRGS-907.pdf?__blob=publicationFile&v=3

Health and Safety Executive, United Kingdom, Examples of skin irritants and sensitisers, together with occupations where they occur. Retrieved 5 September 2011, from: http://www.hse.gov.uk/skin/professional/causes/agentstable1.htm

Institute of Occupational Medicine, United Kingdom, Occupational allergen list. Retrieved 5 September 2011, from: http://www.iom-world.org/services/allergen_list.pdf

ECHA, Classification legislation website, Helsinki, Finland. Available at: http://echa.europa.eu/legislation/classification_legislation_en.asp

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OSH: Dangerous substancesAllergensSkin diseasesRespiratory and lung diseasesHierarchy of controlContact dermatitisSkin sensitisation
NACE: Growing of non-perennial cropsGrowing of perennial cropsAnimal productionMixed farmingSupport activities to agriculture and post-harvest crop activitiesLoggingSupport services to forestryFishingAquacultureMining of hard coalMining of ligniteExtraction of crude petroleum and natural gasMining of metal oresQuarrying of stoneMining support service activitiesProcessing and preserving of meat and production of meat productsTanning and dressing of leather; dressing and dyeing of furSawmilling and planing of woodManufacture of products of woodManufacture of paper and paper productsPrinting of newspapersOther printingBinding and related servicesManufacture of coke oven productsManufacture of basic chemicalsManufacture of pesticides and other agrochemical productsManufacture of paintsManufacture of soap and detergentsManufacture of perfumes and toilet preparationsManufacture of explosivesManufacture of gluesManufacture of man-made fibresManufacture of basic pharmaceutical productsManufacture of pharmaceutical preparationsManufacture of rubber and plastic productsManufacture of articles of concreteManufacture of concrete products for construction purposesCuttingManufacture of basic metalsManufacture of structural metal productsManufacture of tanksForgingTreatment and coating of metals; machiningMachiningManufacture of cutleryManufacture of other fabricated metal productsManufacture of electric motorsManufacture of domestic appliancesManufacture of general-purpose machineryManufacture of other general-purpose machineryManufacture of agricultural and forestry machineryManufacture of metal forming machineryManufacture of other special-purpose machineryManufacture of motor vehiclesManufacture of other transport equipmentManufacture of furnitureRepair and installation of machinery and equipmentManufacture of gas; distribution of gaseous fuels through mainsSteam and air conditioning supplySewerageWaste collectionDismantling of wrecksOFFICE CLERKSCivil engineeringDemolition and site preparationElectricalBuilding completion and finishingRoofing activitiesSale of cars and light motor vehiclesMaintenance and repair of motor vehiclesRetail trade of motor vehicle parts and accessoriesWholesale trade of motor vehicle parts and accessoriesSaleWholesale of solidWholesale of woodWholesale of hardwareWholesale of chemical productsRetail sale of automotive fuel in specialised storesRetail sale of hardwareDispensing chemist in specialised storesRetail sale of cosmetic and toilet articles in specialised storesRetail sale of flowersOther passenger land transportFreight transport by roadTransport via pipelineSea and coastal passenger water transportSea and coastal freight water transportInland passenger water transportInland freight water transportAir transportCleaning activitiesHospital activitiesMedical and dental practice activitiesResidential care activitiesRepair of computers and personal and household goodsWashing and (dry-Hairdressing and other beauty treatment