Preventing accidents in HORECA

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Klaus Kuhl, The Cooperation Centre (Kooperationsstelle), Hamburg

Introduction

The hotel, restaurant and catering (HORECA) sector includes a range of businesses, such as hotels, restaurants, pubs, cafes, caterers, canteens and fast-food takeaways. HORECA is a growing service sector within the EU economy and a crucial job generator. Within the HORECA sector there is a wide range of demanding jobs, such as cleaners and chefs, often placed in a similarly wide range of vocational settings such as kitchens, hotel rooms, swimming pools, each with its own unique set of hazards and risks.
This article will look at typical problems in this sector, describing hazards and risks, and highlighting prevention and control measures.

Definitions and characteristics

The economy of hotels and restaurants is intimately tied to the tourism industry, to business travel and to conferences.[1] It is an important economic factor: In the EU27 1.7 million enterprises employed about 9.3 million people (7.1 % of the workforce of the non-financial business economy). The gross value added made EUR 181.9 billion equalling 3.2 % of the total for the nonfinancial business economy.[2] Many enterprises are family run; with more than 90% of all enterprises employing less than ten workers. The vast majority of enterprises in this sector can be described as small to medium in size. Enterprises with more than 250 workers made up 0.1% of all enterprises, whilst those with less than 50 workers constituted an estimated 99%.[3]

The main characteristics of the sector are described in the article Managing psychosocial risks in HORECA and in a 2008 EU-OSHA report [3]. They include a high percentage of unskilled workers, of young workers, of part-time work, irregular hours and a longer working week than the other sectors, accompanied by often low pay and few career prospects.

Figures and trends

Comparing the three overarching sectors of the economy in the EU27 - agriculture, industry and service - service is the largest. Its proportion of employment continues to grow (from 63.1% in 2000 to 66.9% in 2007) [4]. Looking at the NACE sections, HORECA scored the 11th position regarding both the number of workers and the gross value added (GVA) in 2000/2005, keeping this position in 2009/2010 with a slight increase regarding GVA (see: Sectors and occupations).

In comparison to the number employed the HORECA sector accounts for relatively few fatal accidents, but for a considerable amount of non-fatal accidents as shown in the following chapters.

Fatal accidents

The following comparative table shows the number and trends of fatal accidents in selected sectors:

Table 1: Fatal accidents in EU27 (and in comparison with Spain and Romania)

2000
(EU-15)
2008 2009 2012 Change
[%]
Position
Number Incidence* Number Incidence* Number Incidence* 2008-2012
All sectors(NACE section level) 5237 4736
2.41
3878
1.91
-
-

Mining and quarrying (NACE B) 119
13.02
78
10.45
-34.5
-19.7
8
1
Construction (NACE section F) 1279
14.8
1258
7.5
854
6.22
-32.1
-17.1
1
2
Accomodation and food services (NACE section I) 51
0.59
44
0.47
-13.7
-20.3
13
16
Human health and social work activities (NACE Q) 44
0.23
70
0.34
+60.1
+47.8
11
18
Accomodation and food services Spain 4
0.39
4
0.39
0
0

Accomodation and food services Romania 4
2.43
2
1.47
-50.0
-39.5

Accomodation and food services Austria 5
2.3
1
0.38
-80
-83.5

* Cases per 100,000 workers

Source: Compiled by the author, based on Eurostat[5]

Both the number of accidents and the incidence rate are relatively low. The conditions in this sector are not as dangerous as compared to the construction and mining sectors. In addition the figure shows a considerable progress in reducing the fatal accidents due to efforts of all stakeholders.

Eurostat published the following figures for the two sub-sectors (NACE division level)[6]:

Table 2: Fatal accidents in NACE sub-sectors (EU27)

2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
Accommodation and food service activities (NACE I) 51 63 54 48 44
Accommodation (NACE subcategory I55) 17 25  : 14 8(u)
Food and beverage service activities (NACE subcategory I56) 34 38  : 34 35

“:” means data not available “u” means low reliability, this is probably the reason why the two sub-sectors do not add to the sum of the overall sector.

Source: Compiled by the author, based on Eurostat [7]

The food and beverage service activities sub-sector accounts for more fatal accidents than the accommodation sub-sector, which is no surprise when looking at the working conditions of the two sub-sectors.

Gender

The following table shows the difference in fatal accidents in the sector, according to gender.

Table 3: Fatal accidents in the hotels and restaurants sector by gender (EU15)

Preventing accidents in HORECA Table 3.png

Source: Compiled by the author, based on Eurostat[8]

The 2004 sector report on hotels and restaurants from Eurofound [9] stated that most accidents (fatal and non-fatal) in the EU15 involve handling, lifting or carrying, slips or falls, hand tools, being struck by falling objects, exposure to or contact with harmful substances, cuts and burns.

The comparatively low incidence rate among females can probably be attributed to women being involved in less risky work processes.

Company size

The following table shows the relationship between fatal accidents in the accommodation and food service activities sector and the company size.

Table 4: Numbers of fatal accidents in the accommodation and food service activities sector, according to company size (EU27)

Total Zero (self-employed) From 1 to 9 workers From 10 to 49 workers From 50 to 249 workers From 250 to 499 workers 500 workers or more Unkown
2008 51 0 17 19 9 0 1 5
2010 54 1 28 14 1 2 2 6
2012 44 3 21 12 0 0 1 6

Source: Eurostat [10]

The highest numbers of fatal accidents can be observed in micro-enterprises and SMEs, i.e. small and medium sized enterprises employing between 1 and 249 workers. Notably the larger companies employing between 50-249 workers have reduced the fatal accidents from nine in 2008 to zero in 2012.

Non-fatal accidents

The following table shows the number and trends of non-fatal accidents in the sector (in comparison to other sectors).

Table 5: Non-fatal accidents in the EU27 (and in comparison with Spain, Romania, and Austria) (year, number and incidence) (number of lost days not specified).

2008 2009 2012 Change [%] Position
Number**
Incidence*
Number
Incidence
Number
Incidence
All sectors (NACE section level) 3,851,698
1,956.02
3,156,456
1,552.54
-18.0
-20.6
Construction (NACE F) 626,313
3,735.24
417,838
3,044.45
-33.3
-18,5
2
1
Accomodation and food services (NACE I) 177,678
2,051.00
159,368
1,716.99
-10.3
-16.3
7
6
Mining and quarrying (NACE B) 17,339
1,897.20
11,778
1,577.66
-32.1
-16.8
18
8
Human health and social work activities (NACE Q) 293,690
1,552.40
304,876
1,473.14
+3,8
-5.1
4
9
Accomodation and food services Spain 43,861
4,310.07
29,812
2,901.82
-32.0
-32.7
5
8
Accomodation and food services Romania 60
40.63
70
51.37
-16.7
-26.4
11
8
Accomodation and food services Austria 484***
1,107.81
2,536
1,164.78
2,874
1,084.56
-13.3
-6.9
8
11

*) Cases per 100,000 workers
**) More than three days lost; lost days not specified for the other columns
***) Could be an error in the Eurostat data(?)

Source: Compiled by the author, based on Eurostat [11]

While the number and incidence rate of fatal accidents are relatively low, both figures for non-fatal accidents are clearly higher in comparison to other sectors. The conditions in this sector are not as dangerous as compared to the construction and mining sectors. As concerns the incidence rates the setor scores even higher than the mining and quarrying sector. This indicates that there is still room for improvement.

Eurostat published the following figures for the two sub-sectors (NACE division level) [12]:

Table 6: Non-fatal accidents in NACE sub-sectors (EU27)

2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
Accommodation and food service activities (NACE I) 177,678 173,103 153,400 167,375 159,368
Accommodation (NACE subcategory I55) 51,604 49,755 39,031 45,104 38,184
Food and beverage service activities (NACE subcategory I56) 126,074 123,347 114,369 122,271 121,184

Source: Compiled by the author, based on Eurostat [13]

The food and beverage service activities sub-sector accounts both for more fatal accidents and non-fatal accidents as compared to the accommodation sub-sector, indicating that the working conditions of the latter sub-sector are more problematic.

Gender

The following table shows the difference in non-fatal accidents in the sector, according to gender.

Table 7: Non-fatal accidents in the accommodation and food service activities sector by gender

Preventing accidents in HORECA Table 7.png

Source: Compiled by the author, based on Eurostat [14]

As mentioned above the 2004 sector report on hotels and restaurants from Eurofound [15] states that most accidents (fatal and non-fatal) in the EU15 involve handling, lifting or carrying, slips or falls, hand tools, being struck by falling objects, exposure to or contact with harmful substances, and cuts and burns.

The comparatively low incidence rate among females can probably be attributed to women being involved in less risky work processes.

Company size

The following table shows the relationship between non-fatal accidents in the sector and the company size.

Table 8: Numbers of non-fatal accidents (more than 3 days lost) in the accommodation and food service activities sector, according to company size (EU27)

Total Zero (self-employed) From 1 to 9 workers From 10 to 49 workers From 50 to 249 workers From 250 to 499 workers 500 workers or more Unkown
2008 177,678 1,531 54,446 57,837 30,451 6,480 10,471 16,442
2010 153,400 1,238 51,411 47,788 22,464 5,159 10,204 15,135
2012 159,368 1,411 45,157 50,752 26,468 5,762 13,681 16,137

Source: Eurostat [16]

The highest numbers are found in micro enterprises and SMEs, i.e. enterprises employing between 1 and 249 workers.

Evaluation regarding accidents

The sector has made continuous progress in reducing the number and incidence rate of both fatal and non-fatal accidents. However the incidence rate of non-fatal accidents remains on a fairly high level, whereby especially the situation in SMEs gives rise to concern.

Occupational health

Whereas accident statistics show a downward trend, there is a clear increase from 1999 to 2007 in the proportion of people with work-related health problems, according to the LFS (Labour Force Survey) ad hoc modules [17] (see the following table).

Table 9: Reported work-related health problems by sector Preventing accidents in HORECA Table 9.png

*) Prevalence describes the proportion of a studied group found to have a condition/disease as compared to the number of people studied. This is contrasted with incidence, which is a measure of new cases arising over a given period.

Source: Established by the author, based on Eurostat [18] [19]

The number of workers reporting a work-related health problem in the hotel and restaurant sector more than doubled between 1999 and 2007. However, it has to be noted that the statistical basis of the figures is different. Comparing the positions of the sectors (last column in table 9), the sector keeps a position at the lower end.

Health problems in the hotel and restaurant sector (as reported in 1999) are shown in the following table:

Table 10: Types of health problem reported in the hotels and restaurants sector

Preventing accidents in HORECA Table 10.png

Source: Established by the author, based on Eurostat [20]

The above-mentioned EU-OSHA report states that in 2003, 50% of the diseases in HORECA were musculoskeletal diseases. Skin diseases were second and accounted for 29 %.[3]

The ILO encyclopaedia lists the following occupational health problems in the sector, whereby the article is not restricted to Europe but describes the situation worldwide [21]:

Recognized occupational diseases

In 2003, 1 103 new occupational diseases were registered in the sector. The number of reported diseases increased between 2001 and 2003.[3]

Evaluation regarding occupational health

While the sector made progress in reducing accidents, work-related diseases are still increasing, especially musculoskeletal diseases, skin diseases and psychosocial problems. Greater coordinated efforts by all stakeholders are required to reverse this trend.

Legal requirements

Directive 1989/391/EEC - the ’framework directive’ - is the 'basic law' on occupational safety and health in the EU. Under this general directive, several so-called ‘daughter directives’ were adopted, some of which address the situation in specific sectors. There is no specific directive for the HORECA sector, but several of these daughter directives are relevant such as on minimum safety and health requirements for: the workplace, the use of work equipment, the use of PPE, the handling of loads, the protection from exposure to chemicals, biological agents, noise, vibration, the protection of young workers, etc.

Although not specifically an OSH legislation the following directives also affect the health and safety situation of the workers in the HORECA sector:

  • Hygiene of foodstuffs (852/2004/EC) [22]
  • Specific hygiene rules for food of animal origin (853/2004/EC) [23]

Hazards and risks

Workers in the hotel and catering sector (as well as the transport sector) have to deal with the most unfavourable working conditions in the economy, and saw a deterioration in working conditions from 1995 to 2000, especially with regard to psychosocial risks (ergonomic conditions, working hours, job demands and job autonomy).[3] In the above-mentioned report, EU-OSHA established the various hazards and risks which are relevant in the sector.[3]

Table 11: Hazards and risks in the HORECA sector

Table missing

Source: Compiled by the author, based on [3]

The International Labour Organization has come to similar conclusion, as shown in the following table (Table 12).

Table 12 Occupational health in the HORECA sector according to ILO

Job Stress Because of the periods of intense activity and the necessity of pleasing the patrons on whose gratuities their livelihoods often depend, many of the workers in this industry are subject to high levels of job stress. They must often comply with seemingly unreasonable or even impossible requests and may be subjected to abusive behaviour on the part of supervisors as well as customers. Many of the jobs, particularly those in kitchens and laundries, must be carried out in stressful environments featuring high heat and humidity, poor ventilation, poor lighting and noise.
Violence The workers are exposed to many of the risk factors for workplace homicide: exchange of money with the public, working alone or in small numbers, working late night or early morning hours and guarding valuable property or possessions.
Musculoskeletal problems Except for the special problems noted below, the majority of musculoskeletal injuries result from slips and falls and from lifting and handling heavy and/or bulky objects.
Skin problems Most of the skin problems may be traced to exposure to soap and hot water, to the chemicals in detergents and other cleaning/polishing materials and, in some instances, to pesticides.
Sprains, strains and repetitive motion injuries Back injuries and other sprains and strains commonly occur among doormen, porters and bellmen lifting and carrying luggage (a particular problem when large tour groups arrive and depart); kitchen workers and others receiving and storing bulk supplies; and housekeeping workers lifting mattresses, making beds and handling bundles of laundry. A unique type of injury is carpal tunnel syndrome among food service workers who use scoops to prepare servings of hard ice cream and other frozen desserts.
Cuts and lacerations Cuts and lacerations are common among restaurant workers and dishwashers who deal with broken glass and crockery, and who handle or clean sharp knives and slicing machines. They are also common among chambermaids who encounter broken glasses and discarded razor blades in cleaning out waste baskets; they may be protected by lining the baskets with plastic bags which can be removed en masse.
Burns and scalds Burns and scalds are common among chefs, dishwashers and other kitchen workers and laundry workers. Grease burns occur from splatters during cooking or as food is dropped into deep-fat fryers, when hot grease is added, filtered or removed, and when grills and fryers are cleaned while hot. Many result when workers slip on wet or slippery floors and fall on or against hot grills and open flames. A unique type of burn occurs in restaurants where flaming desserts, entrees and drinks are served (Achauer, Bartlett and Allyn 1982).
Industrial chemicals Hotel and restaurant establishments share a propensity for improper storage, handling and disposal of industrial chemicals with other small enterprises. All too frequently cleaning supplies, disinfectants, pesticides and other household poisons are stored in unlabelled containers, are placed above open food containers or food preparation areas or, when used in spray form, are excessively inhaled.

Source: Compiled by the author, based on [24]

Prevention and control measures

After the stakeholders have identified the specific hazards, the next step is to determine who will be exposed to these hazards and to what extent. This will then lead to the identification of the necessary prevention and control measures, including reassessing the effectiveness of existing measures. The selection of measures has to follow a certain hierarchy to ensure that the most effective measures (e.g. avoidance and substitution) are considered first, and the least effective (e.g. personal protective equipment) are seen as the last resort. It is required to involve the workers into this risk assessment process, as they have sound knowledge about the conditions and risks at their own workplaces.

The avoidance of risks can include using: application of dry cleaning methods, lifting equipment, etc.

Substitution of hazardous substances or processes by less hazardous ones include: aqueous cleaning processes, smoke-free areas, etc.

The application of engineering controls include: beds with a lift mechanism, trolleys, adequate lighting, non-slip mats, machines equipped with guards, noise reduction lining of ceilings, etc.

The application of organisational controls include: role plays on how to deal with aggression, walking instead of running, restrictions for inexperienced workers (e.g. for handling deep fat fryers), reduce high workloads, keep fire exits clear of obstacles, etc.

The use of personal protection equipment (PPE) when prevention and control measures do not suffice, e.g. appropriate footwear, gloves, safety glasses and goggles, hearing protectors.

Training and instruction should accompany all types of measures, to ensure that workers know the new methods and processes, and have practiced them.

For more information see good practice solutions provided by EU-OSHA [25]

Risk assessment tools

In 2009 EU-OSHA began to develop a web application (tools generator) to create interactive risk assessment tools ( OiRA tools). These OiRA tools help micro and small organisations to put in place a risk assessment process – starting with the identification and evaluation of workplace risks through decision making on preventive actions and the taking of action, to monitoring and reporting. Meanwhile the social partners of the HORECA sector started to develop their own OiRA tools for the sector. In several European countries OiRA tools are available (2015): Cyprus, Greece and France (catering), Bulgaria (hotels and restaurants).

The tool allows small companies and self-employed persons to do their legally required risk assessment in a time-effective manner and at the same time find a comprehensive inventory of up-to-date prevention and control measures, whereby they can select the most appropriate for their businesses. [26]

Outlook

Although progress can be seen in reducing occupational accidents the incidences of non-fatal accidents remain on a fairly high level. The occupational health in the sector is still worsening due to increasing workloads and increasing proportions of precarious working conditions. The agreement of the social partners European Federation of Food, Agriculture and Tourism Trade Unions (EFFAT) and Hotrec, the trade association of hotels, restaurants and cafes in the EU and EEA, titled ‘An initiative to improve corporate social responsibility in the hospitality sector’ [27] will hopefully improve the situation. The initiative focusses on the following topics:

  • Equal opportunities and non-discrimination: Enterprises should develop policies to cover recruitment, pay, promotion, training and terminating contracts.
  • Working conditions and work organisation: Practices such as ‘job splitting’, flexitime and other measures to promote a work-life balance should be encouraged. Enterprises should also seek to re-employ seasonal employees from one season to the next to maintain stability and continuity.
  • Fair pay: The principle of non-discrimination should apply to pay at all levels. Non-financial incentives with a ‘family- friendly’ impact, such as day care for children, should be considered. n
  • Vocational and continuous training, and lifelong learning: Training should enhance the ‘professionalisation’ and employability of employees. Enterprises should offer more apprenticeships and traineeships where it is economically and socially feasible.
  • Health and safety: Policies should be drawn up in discussion with employees and programmes aimed at tackling problems that are specific to the sector should be developed.
  • Restructuring: Employees and their representatives should be kept aware of their company’s situation, and be informed and consulted on any planned restructuring exercises. This will avoid or at least limit any negative consequences for employment and prevent any souring of the relationship between employer and employee.

References

  1. Dalhouse, N., 'Restaurants', ILO - International Labour Organization (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Occupational Health and Safety, Geneva, 2011. Available at: [1]
  2. Pelzer, C. & Baksyte, V., More than 9 million persons employed in the hotels and restaurants sector in the EU, Eurostat Report, 101/2009, 2009. Available at: [2]
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 EU-OSHA - European Agency for Safety and Health at Work, Protecting workers in hotels, restaurants and catering, Working Environment Information, Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Luxembourg, 2008. Available at: [3]
  4. Eurostat, Health and safety at work in Europe (1999-2007) – A statistical portrait, Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 2010. Available at: [4]
  5. Eurostat (2015). Fatal Accidents at work by economic activity [hsw_n2_02] Last update 19-02-2015. Retrieved 6 March 2015, from: [5]
  6. Eurostat (2015). Fatal Accidents at work by economic activity [hsw_n2_02] Last update 19-02-2015. Retrieved 6 March 2015, from: [6]
  7. Eurostat (2015). Fatal Accidents at work by economic activity [hsw_n2_02] Last update 19-02-2015. Retrieved 6 March 2015, from: [7]
  8. Eurostat (2015). Standardised incidence rate of accidents at work by economic activity, severity and sex [hsw_aw_inasx] Last update: 04-06-2013. Retrieved 15 February 2015, from: [8]
  9. Hesselink, J.K., Houtman, I., van den Berg, R., van den Bossche, S., & van den Heuvel, F., EU hotel and restaurant sector: Work and employment conditions, Eurofound Report, Dublin, 2004. Available at: [9]
  10. Eurostat (2015). Accidents at work by economic activity and size of enterprise [hsw_n2_05] Last update 27-11-2014. Retrieved 15 February 2015, from: [10]
  11. Eurostat (2015). Non-fatal accidents at work by economic activity and sex [hsw_n2_01] Last update: 19-02-2015. Retrieved 15 February 2015, from: [11]
  12. Eurostat (2015). Non-fatal accidents at work by economic activity and sex [hsw_n2_01] Last update: 19-02-2015. Retrieved 15 February 2015, from: [12]
  13. Eurostat (2015). Non-fatal accidents at work by economic activity and sex [hsw_n2_01] Last update: 19-02-2015. Retrieved 15 February 2015, from: [13]
  14. Eurostat (2015). Non-fatal accidents at work by economic activity and sex [hsw_n2_01] Last update: 19-02-2015. Retrieved 15 February 2015, from: [14]
  15. Hesselink, J.K., Houtman, I., van den Berg, R., van den Bossche, S., & van den Heuvel, F., EU hotel and restaurant sector: Work and employment conditions, Eurofound Report, Dublin, 2004. Available at: [15]
  16. Eurostat (2015). Accidents at work by economic activity and size of enterprise [hsw_n2_05] Last update 27-11-2014. Retrieved 15 February 2015, from: [16]
  17. Eurostat, Health and safety at work in Europe (1999-2007) – A statistical portrait, Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 2010. Available at: [17]
  18. Eurostat (2013). Standardised prevalence rate of work-related health problems by diagnosis group, economic activity of the employer and age [hsw_hp_dinag] Last update: 4 June 2013. Retrieved 21 February 2015, from: [18]
  19. Eurostat (2013). Persons reporting one or more work-related health problems in the past 12 months, by sex, age and economic activity sector in % [hsw_pb6] Last update: 26 June 2013. Retrieved 25 October 2013, from: [19]
  20. Eurostat (2013). Standardised prevalence rate of work-related health problems by diagnosis group, economic activity of the employer and age [hsw_hp_dinag] Last update: 04-06-2013. Retrieved 22February 2015, from: [20]
  21. Warshaw, L.J., 'Hotels and Restaurants - Health Effects and Disease Patterns', ILO - International Labour Organization (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Occupational Health and Safety, Geneva, 2011. Available at: [21]
  22. Regulation (EC) No 852/2004 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 29 April 2004 on the hygiene of foodstuffs, OJL 139/1, 30.4.2004. Available at: [22]
  23. Regulation (EC) No 853/2004 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 29 April 2004 laying down specific hygiene rules for food of animal origin, OJ L 139, 30.4.2004, p. 55–205. Available at: [23]
  24. Warshaw, L.J., 'Hotels and Restaurants - Health Effects and Disease Patterns', ILO - International Labour Organization (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Occupational Health and Safety, Geneva, 2011. Available at: [24]
  25. EU-OSHA- European Agency for Safety and Health at Work, Innovative solutions to safety and health risks in the construction, healthcare, and HORECA sectors, Working Environment Information, Working Paper, 2011. Available at: [25]
  26. EU-OSHA - European Agency for Safety and Health at Work (2015). OiRA Tools. Retrieved 22 February 2015, from: [26]
  27. EFFAT - European Federation of Food, Agriculture and Tourism Trade Unions, HOTREC - Hotels, Restaurants & Cafés in Europe, An initiative to improve corporate social responsibility in the hospitality sector, Brussels, 2004. Available at: [27]



Links for further reading

EU-OSHA- European Agency for Safety and Health at Work, ‘’Facts-79: Protecting workers in hotels, restaurants and catering’’, 2008. Available at: [28]

Hesselink, J.K., Houtman, I., van den Berg, R., van den Bossche, S., & van den Heuvel, F., ‘EU hotel and restaurant sector: Work and employment conditions’, ‘’Eurofound Report’’, 2004. Available at: [29]

EU-OSHA - European Agency for Safety and Health at Work, E-facts 21 - Introduction to the HORECA Sector, 2008. Retrieved 9 March 2015, from: [30]

EU-OSHA - European Agency for Safety and Health at Work, E-facts 22 - Safety and health risks in HORECA, 2008. Retrieved 9 March 2015, from: [31]

EU-OSHA - European Agency for Safety and Health at Work, E-facts 23 - Good practice: accident prevention in HORECA, 2008. Retrieved 9 March 2015, from: [32]

EU-OSHA - European Agency for Safety and Health at Work, E-facts 24 - Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) in HORECA, 2008. Retrieved 9 March 2015, from: [33]

EU-OSHA - European Agency for Safety and Health at Work, E-facts 25 - Managing psychosocial risks in HORECA, 2008. Retrieved 9 March 2015, from: [34]

EU-OSHA - European Agency for Safety and Health at Work, E-facts 26 - Dangerous substances in HORECA, 2008. Retrieved 9 March 2015, from: [35]

EU-OSHA - European Agency for Safety and Health at Work, E-facts 27 - Hot environments in HORECA , 2008. Retrieved 9 March 2015, from: [36]