Temporary Workers

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John Klein Hesselink, Sarike Verbiest, Anneke Goudswaard, TNO, the Netherlands

Introduction

Temporary employment contracts are often used by employers to manage fluctuations in personnel needs. Many sectors of industry experience these fluctuations, which are often seasonal. This creates uncertainty about the continuousness of demand for work, which is transferred from employers to employees through the use of temporary contracts. Besides job and income insecurity, there is also a risk that precarious work is assigned to temporary employees [1]. Employment and occupational safety and health (OSH) legislation are aimed at preventing excesses, but rules differ from country to country. This article gives an overview of the different applications of temporary employment from the European Union’s (EU) perspective, the risks and effects for the employees, and measures to prevent negative consequences.

Definitions of temporary employment in the EU

Temporary employment is a concept that contains a multitude of contractual employment relationships. There is no single definition for this kind of employment, but the common aspect is temporality. This temporal aspect, in combination with other aspects of employment contracts, makes it possible to define four broad groups of temporary employment.

Fixed-term contracts

These contracts are like permanent contracts, but contain a limitation on the length of employment. This is often applied in uncertain economic times or to extend the legal probation period of permanent contracts that may be legislatively too short. Sometimes this is formulated as a temporary or fixed-term contract with the prospect of transferral to a permanent job. Fixed-term contracts can also be used to staff a project. This is called a fixed-term contract for a certain period. Fixed-term contracts are often prolonged with new fixed-term contracts, but also with permanent contracts. Prolongation with a permanent contract may be legally-charged, depending on employment legislation in that country.

Third-party arrangements

These contracts are arranged with labour brokers or employment agencies acting as intermediaries between the employee and a third-party organisation where the actual work is done. Other types of third-party arrangements exist, such as labour pools, but the three-party construction also covers a multitude of other labour contract arrangements. Allocations are almost by definition temporary from an economical point of view, because intermediary parties charge money for the provided services, which adds to the labour costs. However, other forms of permanent third-party arrangements are emerging; for instance, when employees have a permanent contract with a temporary employment agency, or when companies outsource the contractual obligations of their personnel. This latter form is called ‘payrolling’.

Split contracts

In this case, employment contracts contain a permanent and a fixed-term element. The most well-known of these are on-call contracts where an employee can be contracted for 20 hours per week and be called on to work an additional 10 hours depending on the employer’s need for personnel. Agriculture, hotels and restaurants, and the wholesale and retail sector often regulate fluctuations in staffing needs in this way. Often these contracts involve additional obligations, such as the obligation to appear when called. The most precarious form of these contracts is the zero-hour contract. Split contracts must not be confused with consignation, where periods in which an employee can be called outside of contractual working hours are scheduled in for emergencies, such as by doctors and maintenance personnel.

Self-employment

Contractual arrangements with independent contractors and the self-employed are also limited in time, as they are usually hired to make something or to provide a service, for instance in the manufacturing, construction and transportation services. Even the terms employee and employer are not relevant; instead a contractor negotiates with a client. These kinds of arrangements only contain appointments on the agreement that the self-employed party delivers. Legal obligations related to employer-employee responsibilities are mostly lacking. In many countries these labour relationships are legally situated somewhere on the borderline of labour laws and business laws.


Legal aspects of temporary employment

Temporary employment is used by employers to transfer the risk of discontinuity of work to the employees or contractors. In permanent (or indefinite) employment contracts the employer is obliged to pay the employee for the appointed hours of duty or when there is no work. After the first oil crisis in 1973 [2], when worldwide competence became manifest, employers found these rules to be too restrictive, and searched for exceptions to cope with these periods of work discontinuity. The process of finding temporary contract arrangements is still on-going and legislation often follows, but it also lags behind when new forms of temporary employment emerge.

Fixed-term contracts

It was found that the most natural way to solve the problems of work discontinuity was to include temporality in the labour contracts. Temporality is included in the labour laws of most western industrialised countries, and legislative refinements to clarify the nature of temporality were made in 2011 [3]. On 25 June 1991, the European Commission implemented the Council Directive 91/383/EEC [4] on measures to encourage improvements in workplace safety and health for workers with fixed-term or temporary contracts. An evaluation report in 2011 [5] concluded that fixed-term and temporary workers are still comparatively more exposed to occupational health and safety risks than workers with other types of employment contracts.

Third-party arrangements

Agency work in the European Union is fully accepted, but in a small number of member states a sufficient regulatory framework has to be further developed [6]. Primarily, agency contracts need mandating rules to guarantee wages, holidays, breaks, working time, etc. [7]. On 5 December 2011, the EU Directive on Temporary Agency Work 2008/104/EC came into effect [8]. It states that all temporary agency workers should be treated the same as regular workers from their first day at work in relation to:

  • the duration of working time, rest periods, night work, annual leave and public holidays;
  • pay;
  • work done by pregnant women and nursing mothers, children and young people;
  • action taken to combat discrimination on the grounds of sex, race or ethnic origin, religion or beliefs, disabilities, age or sexual orientation.

Furthermore, temporary agency workers must have equal access to facilities such as childcare and must be informed of permanent employment opportunities. Laws to fit temporary employment agency contracts into labour law are often complex and include references to other laws that regulate labour [9].

Split contracts

A 2010 overview of the European Working Conditions Observatory (EWCO) shows that split contracts do not occur very often [10]. The use of these ‘very uncommon arrangements’ exist Europe-wide, and are associated with problems related to health and safety, the risk of poverty and the propensity for undeclared work. Social partners, as well as policymakers, still have to address these ‘challenges’. Split contracts do provide a number of employment advantages, however, and is often a stepping stone to more stable employment. Very atypical work implies greater flexibility than other work forms, but because of its extremely flexible nature it may be viewed as extremely precarious. In terms of the regulation of non-standard work, legislation and/or collective agreements have been adopted to regulate various non-standard forms of work, depending on the countries’ regulatory institutions and processes [10].

Self-employment

The European Employment Observatory issued a report on self-employment in Europe in 2010 [11]. Self-employment has a number of advantages in that it can be used as a driver for entrepreneurship and job creation. As such, it contributes to the European Union’s goals of stimulating growth and improving jobs by 2020 [12]. The self-employed also enjoy greater flexibility, autonomy and job satisfaction than employees. However, there are also problematic aspects associated with self-employment, as the self-employed tend to work longer hours than employees, and in some countries they do not enjoy the same level of social protection as employees.

Groups of temporary workers in the EU

The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) [13] makes a distinction between four categories of employment contracts: indefinite contracts, fixed-term contracts, temporary employment agency contracts and other contracts. Furthermore, the EWCS makes a distinction between employment within an organisational context and self-employment. Based upon these distinctions, the percentages per country are shown in Figures 1–5. These percentages are derived from the survey mapping tool on the website of the European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions [14].

Indefinite or permanent contracts

Indefinite or permanent contracts are the opposite of all temporary contracts. Figure 1 shows the percentage of indefinite contracts for 27 member states, as well as some other countries in the European continent and Turkey. It also shows the mean percentage for EC-12, EU-15 and EU-27 countries. Table 1 provides an overview of the member states, the other countries and the abbreviations of the names of the countries.

Table 1: Overview of member states of the EU belonging to the EC-12, EU15, and EU27*, and other countries in the EWCS sample of 2010

Tab1.PNG

Tab2.PNG

Figure 1: Percentage of employees with indefinite labour contracts in the EU27, and in six other European countries and Turkey (percentage of all employees) (2010

Figure1.PNG

Source [14]

The number of indefinite contracts has risen since 2005 when the average was 77.5%. However, many countries in the Balkans had less than 70% indefinite contracts in 2010. Spain and Ireland are two countries which had less than 70% as well. Portugal, Poland and the Netherlands also had a percentage lower than the average in 2010 (about 80%). The other countries had more than 80% indefinite contracts, with Romania having the highest percentage.

Fixed-term labour contracts

Fixed-term contracts in this section are temporary contracts without agency work and other types of temporary work. Figure 2 shows the percentage of fixed-term contracts per country.

Figure 2: Percentage of employees with fixed-term labour contracts in the EU27, and in six other European countries and Turkey (percentage of all employees) (2010)

Figure2.PNG

Source [14]

Kosovo, Montenegro and Poland have a high percentage in comparison to the other countries. Because these countries have a low percentage of indefinite contracts (Figure 1), organisations in these countries seem to offer their employees a fixed-term contract relatively often (Figure 2). Spain, Macedonia, Portugal and the Netherlands have a relatively high percentage as well (more than 15%). The lowest percentages are found in Turkey, Cyprus and Austria. The average of the European countries lies between 11.5% and 12%. In 2005 this was between 11% and 12%.

Temporary employment agency workers

Figure 3 shows the percentage of temporary employment agency workers per country. It is unknown to what extent other kinds of allocation are included in the figures in this section.

Figure 3: Percentage of temporary employment agency employees in the EU27, and in six other European countries and Turkey (percentage of all employees) (2010) Figure3.PNG

Source [14]

The percentages here are relatively low, but Belgium stands out with more than 3.5%. All the other countries are at least one percentage less. Spain, Cyprus and the Netherlands have more than 2%. The lowest percentages are found in Denmark, Romania, Turkey and Slovakia. The average of all countries lies at about 1.5%, but there are strong differences between countries. In 2005 the average of all countries was about 2%. This decline may be attributed to the economic crisis.

Self-employed

Figure 4 shows the percentages of self-employed workers in the different European countries. Self-employed workers do not have an employment contract with an employer, but are their own boss.

Figure 4: Percentage of self- employed workers in the EU27, and in six other European countries and Turkey (percentage of all people with a paid job: employees plus self-employed) (2010)

Fig4.PNG

Source [14]

Albania has by far the highest percentage of self-employed workers. Kosovo, Turkey and Greece have high percentages as well. Norway, Latvia and Denmark are the three countries with the lowest percentage. The average of all European countries lies between 14% and 15%. The number of self-employed in the EU27 has dropped since 2000 when it was 17.6%. In 2005 it was 16.4%.

Other employment contracts

Figure 5 shows the percentages of other types of employment contracts in the different European countries.

Figure 5: Percentage of employees with other employment contracts in the EU27, and in six other European countries and Turkey (percentage of all employees) (2010)

Fig5.PNG

Source [14]

Turkey has by far the highest percentage of other types of employment contracts. This seems to be antithetical to the indefinite employment contract, for which Turkey has a very low percentage (Figure 1). Cyprus has a relatively high percentage of types of employment contracts as well; Greece, Albania, Macedonia and Ireland follow. The average of the other employment contracts lies between 7% and 8%. There seems to be a decline over time because in 2005 this was about 9%.

OSH problems related to temporary contracts

In Europe [15] [16], but also in other western countries [17], temporary employment is regarded as a risk related to problems with occupational safety and health (OHS), but also to other occupational risks such as reduced employability and lower pay. These relationships are discussed in this section.

For an up-to-date picture of the OHS risks, the EWCS offers an extensive overview. The figures in this section therefore are again derived from the survey mapping tool [14]. For the mapping of the OSH risks, the EWCS differentiates between three groups: employees with a permanent contract, employees with another work arrangement and the self-employed. The employees with other work arrangements are in fact the employees with a temporary or fixed-term contract. This group includes the employees with a fixed-term contract, agency workers and other employment contracts discussed in the previous section.

Health and safety

Temporary work is related to OSH problems. A European study [16] indicates that workers in new forms of employment and contracting practices, including precarious contracts (e.g. temporary or on-call workers) are more vulnerable. These workers often perform hazardous jobs, work under poorer conditions, and often receive less health and safety training than permanent employees. This increases the risk of work-related accidents and health problems. The review study of Virtanen and colleagues [18] suggests higher psychological morbidity among temporary workers compared to permanent employees. Morbidity may be higher in temporary jobs with high instability/insecurity and in countries with a lower number of temporary workers, because these countries may not have specific policies for this group of workers.

Underhill and Quinlan [19] found in a range of studies that precarious employment is associated with adverse health and safety outcomes. Among the temporary workers, the temporary agency workers are most vulnerable. They experience a higher incidence of workplace injury and a greater likelihood of more severe injuries. Temporary agency workers also experience economic pressures, more than other types of precarious workers. They are vulnerable to disorganization risks such as mismatched placements, lack of familiarity with host workplaces, and fractured communication. These contribute to workplace risks and create barriers to improving experience.

The review study of Kim and colleagues [20] reveals that the type of welfare regime may be an important determinant of employment-related health. Flexible workers in Scandinavian welfare states report better or equal health status in comparison to permanent employees. By contrast, flexible work in other regimes (Bismarckian, Southern European, Anglo-Saxon, Eastern European, and East Asian) is found to be associated with adverse health outcomes.

For a recent overview of some figures on health and safety, figure 6 compares the answers of the three groups asked to consider various health, safety, and well-being risks. Self-employed evaluate themselves as having the highest risks and the group of employees with temporary contracts evaluate themselves as having the lowest risks.

Figure 6. Comparison of health and safety risks as reported by employees with a permanent employment contract, employees with a temporary contract and self-employed in EU27 (2010)

Fig6.PNG

Source [14]

Macedonia, Latvia, Bulgaria, Estonia and Greece have high percentages of employees with self-evaluated health and safety risks. In Macedonia, Latvia and Estonia the self-employed report a lower percentage of self-evaluated health and safety risks than the employees with a temporary contract. In Latvia temporary employees have the highest percentage of all countries and groups of workers. Denmark, the Netherlands and Ireland have the lowest percentages of all countries. In Ireland all three groups have a relatively low percentage. The self-employed in Denmark and the Netherlands have a somewhat higher percentage.

Considering the question of whether ‘the work affects the health of the workers negatively’, Latvia has the highest percentage for all groups of workers, especially the employees with a temporary contract and the self-employed; Slovenia and Estonia follow directly. Ireland has the lowest percentage, certainly among the temporary employees. The United Kingdom, Kosovo and the Netherlands follow with an average percentage.

Employees with a permanent contract are more likely to indicate that their work requires personal protective equipment than employees with a temporary contract and the self-employed. The employees with a temporary contract in Slovakia have the highest percentage (66.5%), followed by the self-employed in Sweden (56.5%). Turkey has the fewest number of workers who think their job requires them to wear personal protective equipment (mean 20.7%; the self-employed 15.6%).

In using protective equipment when it is required, the employees with a permanent contract answer positively most often. The other two groups of workers follow closely. Sweden has the lowest mean percentage (82.9%). The self-employed in Estonia and Croatia have the lowest percentage of all workers (71.8 and 72.4% respectively). Slovakia has the highest mean percentage (97%). The self-employed and employees with a temporary contract in Slovakia have the highest percentages of all workers (98.8% and 98.6%).

Training and employability

Lack of training might have implications for OSH, because there is a higher risk of accidents and exposures if you don’t have the necessary skills to carry out your job. In particular temporary agency workers have less access to supplementary training than other employment types [16]. Training is also related to the labour market chances of temporary workers; with less training also the employability of temporary workers decreases. Research indicates that experienced employability of voluntary as well as involuntary temporary employees, leads to less burn-out and stress [21].

Figure 7 shows the percentage of workers who report that they are (very) well informed about health and safety risks related to their job and the percentage of workers receiving on the job training in 2009-2010. It also shows how many workers consider it is easy to find another job with the same salary. A very high percentage of the workers report that they are (very) well informed about the risks (mean 90%). The employees with a permanent contract and the self-employed have the highest percentages. The percentage for the employees with a temporary contract is lower, but still quite high. The self-employed in Slovakia have the highest percentage of all workers in all countries (98.6%). The self-employed in Turkey have by far the lowest percentage (59.3%).


Figure 7: Comparison of workers who feel informed on health and safety risks and employability as reported by employees with a permanent employment contract, employees with a temporary contract and self-employed in EU-27 (2010)

Fig7.PNG

Source [14]


The employees with a temporary employment contract have the highest reported percentage of finding another job. The two other groups have a lower percentage. In Norway this is by far the highest, followed by Sweden and the United Kingdom. In Norway the employees with a temporary job have the highest percentage of all countries and groups of workers. Low average percentages are found in Albania, Hungary and Lithuania. The self-employed in Albania have the lowest percentage of all countries and groups of workers.

Pay and conditions

Figure 7 shows the average percentages of the three groups of workers who agree that they are well paid for the work they do and who are very satisfied with their working conditions in their main paid job. The employees with temporary jobs have the lowest average percentage of both subjects. The employees with a permanent contract do not differ much from the self-employed. The self-employed are the most satisfied with their working conditions.


Figure 7: Comparison of pay and working conditions as reported by employees with a permanent employment contract, employees with a temporary contract and self-employed in EU27 (2010)

Fig7A.PNG

Source [14]

The employees with a temporary employment contract have the highest reported percentage of finding another job. The two other groups have a lower percentage. In Norway this is by far the highest, followed by Sweden and the United Kingdom. In Norway the employees with a temporary job have the highest percentage of all countries and groups of workers. Low average percentages are found in Albania, Hungary and Lithuania. The self-employed in Albania have the lowest percentage of all countries and groups of workers.

Pay and conditions

Figure 7 shows the average percentages of the three groups of workers who agree that they are well paid for the work they do and who are very satisfied with their working conditions in their main paid job. The employees with temporary jobs have the lowest average percentage of both subjects. The employees with a permanent contract do not differ much from the self-employed. The self-employed are the most satisfied with their working conditions.


Figure 7: Comparison of pay and working conditions as reported by employees with a permanent employment contract, employees with a temporary contract and self-employed in EU27 (2010)

Fig7A.PNG

Source [14]

Denmark, Luxembourg and the Netherlands have the highest average percentages in terms of pay satisfaction. The self-employed in Denmark are the most positive of all in this respect. Hungary, Turkey and Lithuania have the lowest average percentages. The employees with another arrangement in Hungary have the lowest percentage of all.

Turkey, Albania and Latvia have the lowest satisfaction rate for working conditions. The employees with temporary jobs in Turkey and Lithuania are the least satisfied of all. Denmark, Ireland, Norway, Cyprus and the United Kingdom have the highest percentages. Overall, the self-employed in the United Kingdom are the most satisfied with their working conditions.

Preventive measures and interventions

For temporary workers OSH preventive measures are stipulated by Directive 89/391, that is still in force today [22]. This OSH "Framework Directive" of 12 June 1989, defines the measures to encourage improvements in the safety and health of workers at work. Temporary work was not seen as a specific problem at that time. The Framework Directive contains basic obligations for employers and all workers. Where an employer enlists competent external services or persons, this shall not discharge him from his responsibilities in this area. In 2004 the European Commission announced the practical implementation of the provisions of some Health and Safety at Work Directives [23]. It was concluded that the Directive 89/391 had successfully contributed to a European wide prevention culture and the improvement of the legislation in the Member states, but at the same time high-risk worker groups are identified. One of the suggestions for improvement is ‘to pay particular attention to the specificities of temporary workers as regards information, consultation, participation and training’.

Preventive measures to bring into line temporary workers with permanent workers are mostly appointed via social agreements. As such there are many changes to make [10]. Underhill and Quinlan [19] also found that many of the negative outcomes in the working situation of temporary agency workers are the result of, or contribute to regulatory failure. The discussions generally centre around two issues, namely: flexicurity (balance between flexibility and security) and transitions to and from work.

The report on emerging psychosocial OSH risks [15] concludes that only few attempts have been undertaken until now to protect workers in precarious contracts. A possible intervention would be to implement policies which oblige employers to provide workers under fixed term contracts and in temporary agency work with instruction and training on how to perform their work safely before they start working, as well as at regular intervals. Also realistic hazard assessment should be exercised. The report gives suggestions for immediate and extended action, also for foreign workers who are often employed in precarious temporary jobs.

Recommendations for immediate action:

  • Provide a common framework aiming at greater harmonization to protect all workers, independent of their type of contract.
  • Enhance the processes and methodologies of labour inspection to guarantee full respect for the legal framework, especially with respect to safety and health at work for all workers, independent of their type of contract.
  • Establish mechanisms to guarantee equal access to training in general and OSH training in particular for all workers, independent of their type of employment contract.
  • Assess the main difficulties experienced by (migrant) temporary agency workers with respect to organizational safety and health.
  • Assess the main difficulties and restraints experienced by companies and organizations employing (migrant) temporary agency workers, when implementing organizational safety and health measures equally for all workers.

Recommendations for longer term actions

  • Develop measures to promote greater involvement of social partners with respect to OSH for (migrant) temporary agency workers, and other flexible workers, such as self-employed offering their labour to a company.
  • Perform more extensive research on occupational risks for (migrant) temporary

agency workers, and other flexible workers.

The studies of Virtanen and colleagues [18] and of Kim and colleagues [24], cited in the preceding section, suggest that the type of welfare regime may be an important determinant of employment-related health of temporary workers. More stability, security and specific policies on temporary work may help. In finding a balance between flexibility and job security, the job security of employees may be improved by offering increasingly permanent elements in the labour contracts after a certain period of time or number of contracts. Securing income, for instance minimum wages, is also a measure that may prevent abuse.

At the same time, flexibility for the employers must be kept in order to remain competitive in today’s business environment. Arguments about the precarious side of temporary work are often contradicted by pointing at the ‘stepping stone’ perspective. It offers people the opportunity for entering the labour market and developing working experience. Skills and career development can be collectively appointed and may help new employees to improve their employability. Health, safety and well-being may be protected by ensuring that temporary workers have the same protection as permanent workers. Finally the advantages of temporary work in combining work and family life must be valued and arranged. Employing more people with family responsibilities is beneficial for employees, employers and the economy in general. Scheduling optimal working hours, shift work possibilities and self-rostering are useful instruments to provide mutual flexibility within a secure (permanent) employment relationship and thus without making use of flexible contracts.

The EWCO study on very atypical contractual arrangements recommends actions that guarantee both flexibility and security in the labour market through a degree of regulation and monitoring of these forms of work [10]. Actions and policies addressing the need for flexibility on the one hand and greater protection for workers on the other, have been devised in the main for more general forms of temporary work, but are still rare for the new very atypical forms. In some countries a range of policies and measures are in place to support and encourage self-employment [11]. These include:

  • financial support;
  • support services, training, mentoring and advice;
  • measures to reduce bureaucracy and administrative burdens;
  • favourable conditions for the self-employed in terms of tax and social security regimes.

In egalitarian welfare employment policies such as those seen in Scandinavian countries, policies seem to buffer the negative health effects of insecure forms of employment [25]. Scandinavian welfare states rely on employment protection policies that ensure effective collective bargaining institutions, lifelong job training, and generous unemployment schemes.

Conclusions

About 20% of all employee contracts in Europe are temporary, and 15% of all working people are self-employed. These percentages are high, but also show that permanent contracts are still the standard. The number of self-employed and employees with a temporary contract is even declining, but that may be short-lived due to the economic crisis. Employers ‘benefit’ from the many temporary contracts because they can easily manipulate personnel staffing in hard times [2]. The number of temporary contracts is falling, but there may be a serious underestimation of the incidence or temporary work because migrant and illegal work is not included in the discussion.

The figures on OSH problems related to flexible work indicate that the situation is somewhat worse – although not dramatically worse – compared to employees with a permanent contract. However, past research does show differences in health effects, where preventive measures and interventions can be successful. Offering more stability using egalitarian welfare employment policies and legislation models from these countries may be a way of buffering negative health effects.

References

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  17. Underhill, E.M., Quinlan, M.G., ‘How Precarious Employment Affects Health and Safety at Work: The Case of Temporary Agency Workers’, Relations Industrielles/Industrial Relations, Vol. 66, No 3, 2011.
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  19. 19.0 19.1 Underhill, E.M., Quinlan, M.G., ‘How Precarious Employment Affects Health and Safety at Work: The Case of Temporary Agency Workers’, Relations Industrielles/Industrial Relations, Vol. 66, No 3, 2011.
  20. Kim, I.H., Muntaner, C., Vahid Shahidi, F., Vives, A., Vanroelen, C.’, Benach, J., ‘Welfare states, flexible employment, and health: a critical review’, Health Policy, Vol. 104, No 2, 2012, pp. 99-127.
  21. Kinnunen, U., Mäkikangas, A., Mauno, S., Siponen, K., Nätti, J.,’ Perceived employability: investigating outcomes among involuntary and voluntary temporary employees compared to permanent employees’, Career Development International, Vol. 16, No. 2, 2011, pp. 140-160.
  22. Directive 89/391 - OSH "Framework Directive" of 12 June 1989 on the introduction of measures to encourage improvements in the safety and health of workers at work - "Framework Directive". [15]
  23. European Commission, Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of Regions on the practical implementation of the provisions of the Health and Safety at Work Directives 89/391 (Framework), 89/654 (Workplaces), 89/655 (Work Equipment), 89/656 (Personal Protective Equipment), 90/269 (Manual Handling of Loads) and 90/270 (Display Screen Equipment). Retrieved on 12 September 2013, [16]
  24. Kim, I.H., Muntaner, C., Vahid Shahidi, F., Vives, A., Vanroelen, C.’, Benach, J., ‘Welfare states, flexible employment, and health: a critical review’, Health Policy, Vol. 104, No 2, 2012, pp. 99-127.
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Links for further reading

EUOSHA - The European Agency for Safety and Health at Work (2013)., Home page. Retrieved on 1 March 2013, from: [17]

Eurofound - European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions (2013)., Home page. Retrieved on 1 March 2013, from: [18]

EIRO - European Industrial Relations Observatory (2013). Home page. Retrieved on 1 March 2013, from: [19]

European Commission - Employment, Social Affairs & Inclusion, Working Conditions (2013). Temporary agency workers. Retrieved on 1 March 2013, from: [20]

OECD- Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (2013). Home page. Retrieved on 1 March 2013, from: [21] ILO - International Labour Organization (2013). Home page. Retrieved on 1 March 2013, from: [22]